Ring E: 22/22: Asha'ille
Vek'shatruv esa ne mlaiye ileiya 'sa dimacatá ne zin'e 'sa dogír sheló k', di'ay arishavyilaiye ósa n'edhyu: ve'latjio sirevdaiye ne hijith arigh, hyilokim, pajhen so'aefa, oshyen, gid, ura, krurás, yinaveth gana, shanago, acídh rilei, saetheth ttan'e. Dochishyiv ne arigh pajhen ve'dogír chi k', vesik'vae e'kath asardav ne krurás yinaveth gana ve'chi k'. T'vesik rúriv ne chi eyenim vedá'saetheth ttan, krurás, oshyen, yinaveth gana, rilei k', t'ves asardav ne arighith asárn ne eyenim. Vae'Imacatá lloshav aesam n'edh nom ne sshak, taragam. Vik'asardavaiye ne taragam vel'gid ura kkik, t'ves vek'vel a'ach rúriv n'om kes. Téjh, chat'nagov!
(Cresaean flora and fauna renamed to their closest Terran equivalents)
When you ask your mother from Imacatá how to make the tastiest meals, perhaps she will answer you thus: you will need beef, cooking stones, an onion, butter, oil, water, salt, pepper, Imacatá spices, hot sauce, and flour. Chop the meat and onion finely, then into that add a little salt and pepper. Then make little containers from the flour, salt, butter, pepper and sauce, and add the meat mixture to the containers. In Imacatá they call these things "raviolis." Now add the raviolis into the oil and water, and cook them until boiling. Enjoy, and do eat!
Asha'ille is spoken on a conworld, Cresaea, and as such their flora and fauna have no *exact* Terran equivalent. I've provided the closest Terran terms anyhow, since a huge treatise on Cresaean ecology isn't appropriate to a relay. :)
Asha'ille has fairly strict VSO order and no case markings. S is separated from O by the word "ne," which always precedes the object(s), even when no subject is explicitly given. By convention, some verbs take two objects instead of using an adverbial phrase for one. In these cases, "ne" separates each object from one another, as well.
Multiple subjects for one verb (as would be joined with "and" in English) are listed serially in Asha'ille. If only two subjects are given, there is usually no comma separating them.
One-word adjectives precede nouns; multi-word adjective phrases follow nouns and are headed by a word that links the phrase to the word it describes. Adverbial phrases also obey this rule for determining whether they precede the verb or follow after it.
Adverbial phrases are always introduced with an opening adverb, and if the phrase is longer than a single word (not counting the adverb itself), then the phrase must also end with its closing adverb. These phrases may nest:
ves'... vek'... kek kes
Closing adverbs are frequently contracted to just "k'," with inner closing adverbs of nested phrases tending to contract before outer closing adverbs:
ves'... vek'... k' kes
Where two closing adjectives appear adjacent to one another, and the first would be contracted to "k'," they may be further contracted:
ves'... vek'... kkes
Instead of a 1st-2nd-3rd person system, Asha'ille categorizes people into 7 levels of "closeness" (with three sub-categories of beneficial relationships, harmful relationships, and neutral relationships). The simplest category -- and the only relevant to this text -- is the neutral category:
|generic||-aerdh||ae<#> (used where English might use passive)|
The "<#>" means that a "number suffix" must be added to the stem to form a complete pronoun: "-sa" is #1, "-da" is #2, for example. These number-suffix–derived pronouns only temporarily refer to a specific person. The number chosen start with #1 for the first person mentioned, and increases as each additional person from the same subcategory is singled out for discussion. Once the conversation is over, these pronouns no longer refer to anything, because they exist only in context.
Adjectival Phrase Headers
The word "e'kath" heads a phrase that describes the indirect object.
The stem "alun-" plus a number suffix (say for #n) heads a phrase that describes the nth previous word. By far the most common of these is "alunsa," which heads a phrase describing the immediately preceding word. "Alunsa" is so common that it is usually contracted to just "'sa." A special number suffix, "-yu", applies to clause-level descriptions.
Apostrophes have multiple uses in Asha'ille. They can mean any of:
- glottal stop, required between vowels that are not dipthongs.
- long consonant, only allowed after m, n, or l.
- morpheme binding, as between opening adverbs and their phrases
Where "ne" is followed by a word beginning with an e (say, "eyen"), it is regularly contracted (to "n'yen," in this example).
All declarative sentences may colloquially end with an upward-inflected "'e." In common usage, however, it normally only appears at the end of a long list of serial objects.
* see grammar notes below for an explanation
|asardav||to add (may take 2 objects: first is the thing being added, second is the thing being added TO)|
|eyen||container (very generic term, more so than in English)|
|hiji||a bovine-like animal|
|-im||plural (i drops when noun ends in a vowel)|
|Imacatá||a region of Cresaea know for its cheese (and other food)|
|-ith||adjectivizer (i drops when noun ends in a vowel)|
|-l-||separates subject and object conjugations on the verb|
|lloshav||to call, to name|
|pajhen so'aefa||an onion-like plant|
|rúriv||to do, to make. to cook|
|saetheth ttan||flour (a specialty kind of flour, not normal flour)|
|shanago||a spice used in Imacatá cooking|
|shatruv||to ask how to do something (may take 2 objects: first is the person being asked, second is the topic being asked|
|taraga||a traditional Imacatá dish not unlike ravioli ;)|
|ve||generic adverbial clauses introducer; often used for manner (closing adverb ke)|
|vae||where (closing adverb kae)|
|vedá||from (closing adverb kedá)|
|vek||when (closing adverb kek)|
|vek'vel||until (closing adverb ke)|
|vel||to, 'toward' (closing adverb (kel)|
|ves||also, simultaneously (closing adverb kes)|
|vesik||then (closing adverb kesik)|
|vik||now (closing adverb kik)|
|-yi||adds uncertainty or possibility to the action yinaveth gana a peppery spice|