Tirkunan: A Romance Language

[ Static Lexicon | Scripted Lexicon ]

Inside this orange box I am writing as a conlanger. A blue box will be used when our hobby linguist from this universe reports on what information was sent from there about Tirkunan. If there is no special markup, you are reading the original text that the Institute for Parallel Histories (IPH) sent from there. The IPH themselves use light grey boxes to clarify language history in more detail.


Idea / Cuciput

Tirkunan is a Romance conlang derived from Vulgar Latin that I modelled to look like what I felt was a nice Romance language, whatever 'nice' may mean.

Due to my preference to create highly regular engelangs, simplicity and regularity is one design goal, but Tirkunan is not an engelang, nor an auxlang, nor a creole, but constructed like a plausible language from a separate Romance branch, probably in sprachbund with a few surrounding other Romance languages.

The morphological simplification is extensive, but considering the Germanic family, there is a wide rage of morphological complexity, from Africaans to Icelandic. So Tirkunan is meant inside the Romance family to be morphologically simple like Africaans, and even simpler. Tirkunan should still feel like a natural Romance language, and some irregulaties exist to avoid an odd feel. I also try to give examples for individual simplifications of morphology in existing Romance languages to indicate plausibility.

Another goal was to have a fully elaborated Grand Master Plan for the sound shifts instead of making up words in an ad-hoc manner. This will help me prevent inconsistencies and makes the lexicon more plausible.

The nouns, adjectives and verbs will be derived with a semi-automated set of rules from Vulgar Latin words, but some manual adjustments will be made if it feels more plausible that way. The sets of rules will try to produce something that looks plausibly Romance, without making the conhistorical development explicit. The conhistory is currently not my primary goal as long as the result looks plausibly Romance at first and hopefully second glance.

Tirkunan's location in the multiverse is in the parallel universe of Þrjótrunn somewhere on the Iberian Peninsula. The details are still missing from the IPH.

In summary, the design goals were the following.

  • Very simple morphology.
  • Plausibly a Romance language.
  • Isolating morphology, and isolating or agglutinative derivation.
  • A plausible phonological history of the language, i.e., a grand master plan by which words are regularly derived from Vulgar Latin.
  • An interesting vowel system. This was the initial momentum starting this conlang.
  • No palatalisation, except for very few examples.
  • Flavours of Spanish, Catalan, Italian, Sardinian, Sicilian.
  • Should not sound like French, Portuguese, or Romanian.
  • If Afrikaans can throw away all(/most) morphology, so can Tirkunan.
  • Tendency to not reborrow words from Classical Latin, but to keep the Proto-Romance derivation.

Influences / Mfluiti

To get the sound right that I had in mind, I considered the following.

Like Logudorese (Sardinian), Tirkunan did not palatalise /k ɡ t d/ (nor other consonants) before [e i]. /k/ used to be written k, but we're back to c now.

Like Sicilian, Calabrese and other Italian languages, Tirkunan drops some initial unstressed vowels, most frequently /i/, e.g. mpiri < impērivm 'empire' (compare Sicilian/Calabrese 'mperu'). This does lead to more initial consonant clusters.

Like Catalan, Tirkunan does not fear consonantal endings on words. E.g. ciutat [kjuˈtat] < civitātem 'town' (compare Catalan 'ciutat'), cel [kɛl] < caelvm 'sky; heaven'.

Like many dialects of Catalan, Portuguese, and some Southern Italian dialects like Sicilian/Calabrese, reduces unstressed vowels into a three-vowel system /a i u/, e.g. the participle of solu [ˈsolʊ] is sulut [sʊˈlʊt].

Like Catalan, has new endings in /u/ from /v/, which resurfaces in derivation: nou 'nine' vs. nuvinti 'ninety'.

Like Spanish, Tirkunan has five phonemic vowels: /i e a o u/. Some words show similar sound shifts: omra [ˈɔmbrɐ] < hominem 'man' (compare Spanish 'hombre').

Like Italian (and French), Tirkunan has quite a lot of elided vowels and consonants, and many function words end in a vowel.

Like in Modern Tuscan, Romanian, and other languages, the infinitive '-re' on verbs is dropped. And like Romanian, that very ending is reinterpreted as a new kind of supine or gerund for nominalisation.

Similar to Sicilian (and to a more limited degree Catalan and Portuguese), many prepositions often drop their final consonants and even vowels, e.g. pi < per can become p' and cun < cvm can become cu.

Like some Catalan dialects, the preposition di to form the genitive is often dropped. The preposition is not dropped in other meanings or usages, like 'from': gen di Tali 'person from Italy' cannot be shortened.[1]

Unlike most Romance languages, there is almost no palatalisation, so no [ɲ ʎ ç ʃ ʒ t͡ʃ d͡ʒ]. Instead, Tirkunan retains the [i] (and [u]) glides as a vowel, e.g., ali < alivm (and crou < corvvs).

Unlike French, there are no nasal vowels, and no [y ø ʒ ʃ ɥ].

Unlike Portuguese, Old French, Old Spanish, there are no nasal vowels and no [l] > [u] shift, although I like it very much and it was tempting to include it.

Unlike all existing Romance languages, Tirkunan has lost gender completely. Still, I do not think it is inconceivable in Romance, because Germanic has done it, and Romance and Germanic come from the same source. While Romance is relatively homogeneous, in Germanic, the completely different handling of gender (and case) between Icelandic and Afrikaans is estonishing, so why should there not be a hidden Romance language that lost gender altogether?

With the loss of endings, the number marking on nouns was also lost. This also does not feel implausible to me as French has only weak number marking on nouns, too.

Further, especially the verbal system is untypically analytical for Romance languages, although all the principles and forms are taken from existing Romance languages so none of the isolated verb forms should appear out of place.

I am positively surprised about how making Tirkunan isolating could be done by using selected features from existing Romance languages: analytic verb forms using auxiliaries, dropped endings in Catalan and Tuscan, ordinals with di+number like in Sardinian, replacement of possessive adjectives by di+pronoun in Balearic Catalan, causatives with fi auxilary like Portuguese, plural marking only on article (almost) like French. Sometimes, I found the existing languages with the simplified features only after accidentally doing it in a very similar way, the singular pronouns of Ligurian.

Accidents

Structurally, Tirkunan is more French than I had planned. Some problems were elegantly solved that way, and some things probably just happend by chance:

  • Plural is shown on articles, not on nouns: ciutat 'city/cities': li ciutat 'the city' vs. lur ciutat 'the cities'.
  • Drop of vowels, very short verb forms, qv>c: l'omra 'the man', cim 'five'.
  • Some vocab does sounds very French, but even more Catalan in most cases: Lac Liman 'Lake Geneva'.
  • Quite some vocab is actually identical to Catalan: peu 'foot'.
  • Some similarities with Romanian derivation. E.g., '-re' (old infinitive, now noun formation) has inspired (a)r in Tirkunan for nominalisation, and '-tor,-toare' (a)tur is also used for adjective formation. Since finding this accidental similarity, I now often actively try to be inspired by derivation structures in Romanian.

Name / Li Numra

The name 'Tircunan' or 'Tirkunan' means 'Tarragonian', i.e. 'language of (the city of) Tarragona'. This town is called 'Tracunis' in Modern Tirkunan and was the capital of the Roman province of Hispānia Tarracōnēnsis for several centuries. Today, it is the second largest city (~2.300.000 inhabitans) of Lustany (or 'Lustani' in Tirkunan).[2] In texts written before the unified orthography was introduced, Tirkunan is also frequently referred to as 'Trakunan', 'Tracunan', 'Terkunan', 'Tercunan', 'Tircunan', or 'Tirkunan'. Further, some dialects have metathesis (or used to have, as by the influence of the standard language this is no longer the case), in analogy with other words, so we also find 'Tricunan', etc.

Derived regularly from the Latin word, the city is called Tracunis. For the language, the ending -an was eventually preferred for adjectives instead of -is as the latter was more and more interpreted as a locative, today often found in city names.

The vowel change in the language name was either by influence of another language, or maybe because it was taken to be related to ter 'earth'. We don't know the exact reason. Historical documents merely show that the name changed around four-three hundred years ago, and there are various inconsistent spellings in older texts.


Development / Savrutati


Phonology / Sistim Son

Spelling

Spelling of Tirkunan is completely phonemic. All phonemes are represented by a single grapheme, i.e., there are no digraphs.

Stress and syllable boundaries are mostly implicit and not specifically marked, but the full stress pattern can be derived regularly from the spelling. The apostrophe is used to indicate a vowel or consonant that was dropped due to a elision, and at the end of a word, this apostrophe also marks that stress is retained on the last syllable.

In the following, the phonemic representation is usually not given except in special cases, because the spelling of Tirkunan is phonemic. When pronunciation is discussed, the phonetics are given in IPA.

Consonants

The following consonants exist:

grapheme phoneme phones
b /b/ [b]
c /k/ [k]
d /d/ [d]
f /f/ [f]
g /ɡ/ [ɡ]
l /l/ [l]
m /m/ [m ɱ]
n /n/ [n ŋ m ɱ]
p /p/ [p]
r /r/ [r]
s /s/ [s]
t /t/ [t]
v /v/ [v]

Phonotactics

Tirkunan allows any sequence of vowels anywhere in a word, and each vowel is counted phonemically as a separate syllable. Some vowel sequences tend to be phonetically realised as diphthongs, as the section on vowels explains. Also, sequences of u + vowel emerging from derivation are usually resolved as v + vowel.

In sequences of nasal + r or l, a voiced homorganic plosive is regular pronounced, but not written. The spelling is completely regular, and it is even applied to clusters where the plosive was historically phonemic: it is deleted in modern spelling, so these plosives are completely regularly non-phonemic, but always pronounced. This also holds true for derivation and even across word boundaries, e.g. when -n is prefixed to r- or l-. The following table shows the correspondance between phonemic spelling and phonetic pronunciation:[3]

cumra [ˈkʊmbrɐ] 'top'
cinra [ˈkɪndrɐ] 'ash'
ungra [ˈʊŋɡrɐ] 'fingernail'
n'reni [n̩ˈdrenɪ] 'in the kingdom'
n'lac [n̩dlak] 'in the lake'
avan rabul [ɐˈvan drɐˈbʊl] 'in front of the tree'
fung rau [fʊŋ ɡra͡ʊ̯] 'white mushroom'

Note that a velar nasal only occurs in front of g and k where it is spelled n. The spelling ng is pronounced [ŋɡ] intervocalically, but otherwise, it is generally [ŋ], particularly at ends of words. Following the above rule, it is also [ŋɡ] before liquids.

The language allows the following initial consonants or internal clusters:

b bl br mb mbl mbr sb sbl sbr
p pl pr mp mpl mpr sp spl spr nsp nspl nspr
d - dr nd - ndr sd - sdr
t - tr nt - ntr st - str nst - nstr
g gl gr ng ngl ngr sg sgl sgr
k kl kr nk nkl nkr sk skl skr nsk nskl nskr
f fl fr mf mfl mfr sf sfl sfr
l - - nl - - sl
m - - - - - sm
n - - - - - sn
r - - - - - sr
s - - ns
v vl vr mv mvl mvr sv svl svr

Note that this tables only shows the phonetic clusters, i.e., with the epenthetic plosives included. They are not written this way, but without the plosive between nasal and liquid.

Inner clusters are usually simpler, but prefixes may cause more complex initial clusters, e.g., n(i) < in- and s(a) < -ex. The resulting combinations are already considered above -- many combinations starting with s, n, m are not found in a lemma in the lexicon.

Phonemically, all the clusters are single syllable, e.g. for determining stress, but phonetically a pre-consonantal n or m is pronounced syllabic.

If a consonant cluster is not feasible, the epenthetic vowel surfaces from the prefixes: this is before nasal for n(i) and before s for s(a). In the case of s, before voiced plosives, it causes the plosive to become phonetically unvoiced, e.g., sba [spa]. More epenthetic consonants additional to what is listed above may emerge for some speakers, e.g. in sr, an epenthetic t may be heard.

The language allows the following final consonant clusters:

p mp lp rp sp
t nt lt rt st
k nk lk rk sk
m - - rm
n - - rn
- ng
r
l
f - lf rf
s - - - - ts nts ps cs

The final ng represents the phoneme /ŋ/.

To avoid other final consonant clusters, an epenthetic a has emerged historically, and is also written, because it has become phonemic, i.e., modern loan words may violate this principle. Some consonants usually do not occur in stems but are derived from Proto-Romance in different ways, e.g. final d usually appears as r and final b and v usually appear as u.

Vowels and Syllables

Tirkunan has the following vowels, which are pronounced slightly differently in different phonological context, determined by length and stress:

spelling phoneme
stressed,
open
stressed,
closed
unstressed
a /a/ [] [a] [ɐ]
e /e/ [] [ɛ] -
i /i/ [] [ɪ] [ɪ]
o /o/ [] [ɔ] -
u /u/ [] [ʊ] [ʊ]

Length is not phonemic.

In unstressed position, only vowels a i u may occur: e is pronounced like i and o is pronounced like u. This is always shown in spelling, i.e., e o never occur in unstressed position in spelling nor in pronunciation.

Some dialects do not distinguish between [a] and [ɐ], but only use [a]. Some dialects that do distinguish the two may have [ə] instead of [ɐ] for unstressed /a/.

Tirkunan does not have phonemic diphthongs. Phonemically, adjacent vowels are separate syllables, and there is no theoretical limit of vowel sequences. In many dialects, some vowels merge into phonetic diphthongs, though.

Spelling does not mark the phonetic syllables intuitively, but is focussed on indicating phonemic syllables and stress. This means that, for example, phones may belong to an adjacent phonological word instead of the one they are written in: com ni cel [kɔm ni kɛl] 'like in heaven'.

Syllable breaks are as follows: V-V, V-CV, VC-CV, VC-CCV..., i.e., a single consonant belongs to the next syllable, while of a sequence of at least two consonants, the first one closes the previous syllable. There is one exception: stop + r,l behaves like one consonant.
pan /pan/ [pan] bread
bisti /ˈbis.ti/ [ˈbɪstɪ] wild animal
fimra /ˈfim.ra/ [ˈfɪmbrɐ] woman
cetra /ˈke.tra/ [ˈketrɐ] citrus
centra /ˈken.tra/ [ˈkɛntrɐ] center
angra /ˈan.ɡra/ [ˈaŋɡrɐ] angle
cucra /ˈku.kra/ [ˈkukrɐ] needle
fili /ˈfi.li/ [ˈfilɪ] son; daughter

Vowel Length

Vowel length is non-phonemic. Yet vowels have different quantity in pronunciation. In stressed, open syllables, a vowel is long. Otherwise, it is short. The quantity changes only slightly, so we do not indicate it in this document except for stressing the slight difference. The quality, however, changes as the above table shows.

Foreign Names and Loans

Foreign names are usually spelled in Tirkunan-style phonetic spelling, even if the source language uses the Latin alphabet. This includes names of cites, countries, places, but also foreign names of people.

Some Latin consonant graphemes are not used by Tirkunan natively. Some of these are used in transscribing foreign names. There is an educated pronunciation that is closer to the transscribed language, and a common one that just uses the 'closest' Tirkunan phoneme.

Additional to the plain Latin letters, some letters with diacritics are used in educated transscriptions to more closely render the foreign pronunciation. This is by no means as close as it could get, but only a few sounds are rendered. The following tables gives a list of phonetic and typical educated spelling. It also shows how some sounds are not spelled distinctively. In common spelling, or when the word becomes more native, the diacritics are left out.

Furthermore, Tirkunan uses some digraphs to represent foreign phonemes in loans and names. In common spelling, or when the word becomes more native, the digraphs are simplified as shown, to represent the native, common Tirkunan pronunciation.

Phoneme Educated Spelling Common Pronunciation Common Spelling
/h/ h silent left out
/j/ j /i/ j
/k/ k /k/ k
/q/ q /k/ k
/w/ w /u/ u
/ɨ/ y /i/ i
/z/ z /s/ s
/øˌ œ/ ë /e/ e
/yˌ ʏ/ ï /i/ i
/ə/ ä /a/ a
/ʃ/ x /s/ s
/ʃ/ š /s/ s
/t͡ʃ͡/ tx /ts/ ts
// /ts/ ts
/ʒ/ ž /s/ s
/d͡ʒ͡/ /ts/ ts
/ʎ/ lj /li/ li
/ɲ/ nj /ni/ ni
/c/ cj /ki/ ci
/ɟ/ gj /ɡi/ gi
/xˌ χ/ ch /k/ c
/ɣˌ ʀ/ gh /ɡ/ g
/θ/ th /t/ t
/ð/ dh /d/ d
/ɤ/ o /o/ o
/ɯ/ u /u/ u
/ɨ/ i /i/ i
/ʉ/ u /u/ u
/æ/ e /e/ e

The graphme k is sometimes used like c if then transscribed language uses that grapheme. There is no difference in pronunciation. The grapheme x is used also in some recent loans into Tirkunan, but is usually quickly replaced by s as the word becomes native.

The spelling x for /ʃ/ is preferred if the source language uses it that way and in loans into Tirkunan, otherwise, š is used.

Stress

Stress in Tirkunan is clearly present, but it is mostly not phonemic. Similarly to Classical Latin, stress can be determined from the structure of the end of a word, and it also influences vowel quality.

Because Tirkunan spelling represents the phonemic word structure quite regularly, stress can be determined directly from spelling. Words are stressed

on the last syllable if the word ends in a consonant
on the last syllable if the word is phonemically monosyllabic
on the last syllable if an apostrophe is put after the word
on the penultimate syllable if the word ends in a vowel

The apostrophe rule looks like stress needs to be marked, so it would seem phonemic, but really what is marked is a dropped consonant in pronunciation. One could discuss whether this is a process of stress becoming phonemic. Also, foreign loans may have such irregular stress, which might be, again, indicating phonemic stress. But those are still exceptions.

For determining stress, each vowel is counted as a separate syllable, i.e., phonetic diphthongs like ia ie io iu ai au ou still count as two syllables and the word aoi is thress phonemic syllables.

A nasal prefixed to a consonant cluster is phonetically articulated as a syllabic nasal, but phonemically, it is not a separate syllable, i.e., mpre [m̩pre] is a single phonemic syllable and not stressed on the nasal, but it is two phonetic syllables, with the nasal a separate phonetic syllable.

Exceptionally, if a final consonant is dropped by phonotactic phenomena, or because it is lexicalised that way, a stress on the word final vowel is indicated by an apostrophe. An apostrophe would also be used if the stress stays on the last syllable when adding a prefix, but in Tirkunan, stress may move backwards, so this does not happen.

Finally, because stress does influence vowel quality, if the phonemic structure of a word is shown in this document, stress is marked for convenience, as is the actual vowel quality.

Stress and Affixes

In Tirkunan, stress often moves towards the end of the word when suffixes are added, as stress is relative to the end of a morphological word.

If prefixes are added, stress may also move towards the beginning of the word, in case the word to which a prefix is added has only one syllable and ends in a vowel: multisyllabic words that end in a vowel are stressed on the penultimate. E.g. di + mpre becomes dimpri [ˈdɪmprɪ].[4]

When a suffix is then added to such a prefixed word and the stress shifts back to the original syllable, the reduced vowel stays, i.e., derivation eliminates knowledge about original vowels, e.g. dimpri [ˈdɪmprɪ] + -(a)t becomes dimprit [dɪmˈprɪt].[5]

Stress and Compounds

Compounding is not the most frequent way of word formation in Tirkunan, but it does happen. There are three typical kinds of compounding.

  1. Prefix modifier compounds, like mei-not 'midnight'. These are often from loans, like letr-iman 'electromagnet', where the word formation structure itself is a loan.
  2. Noun-noun compounds following the semi-learned original Latin way of compounding. This is much less productive, so most of these have lexicalised into a single word, e.g., culiflur 'cauliflower' or capil 'hair'.
  3. Phrasal compounds like alioli 'aioli' before it was lexicalised.

Compounds retain a secondary stress in all components. The last component has the main stress. Because stress is retained, there is no vowel reduction to a i u in compounding. To indicate this different type of word formation, compounds are written with a hyphen '-'.

Compounds may, over time, become single phonological words, e.g., alioli 'aioli'.

Note that V-N compounds, usually of verb+object for agent nouns, which are frequent in other Romance languages, are not used in Tirkunan. E.g., French casse-noisette 'nutcracker' is spastur nuc in Tirkunan, i.e., it is a normal lexicalised noun phrase, but not a compound.[6] Lexicalisation into single words also happens with noun phrases, which are no compounds and, therefore, not written with a hyphen, often with stems that are not used in isolation like culiflur < coli + flur. It is not unusual for the constituating fossilised stems to retain final vowels that have otherwise been dropped in isolated words, like the -i in coli.

Some examples

mpir /m.pir/ [m̩pɪr] to rule, to command
mpiri /ˈmpi.ri/ [m̩ˈpirɪ] empire
mpirian /m.pi.ri.ˈan/ [m̩pɪrˈjan] imperial
mpiratur /m.pi.ra.ˈtur/ [m̩pɪrɐˈtʊr] emperor
racu /ˈra.ku/ [ˈrakʊ] some(one)
aoi /a.ˈo.i/ [ɐˈo͡ɪ̯] today
ariva /a.ˈri.va/ [ɐˈrivɐ] to arrive
arivi /a.ˈri.vi/ [ɐˈrivɪ] arrival
ustreba /us.ˈtre.ba/ [ʊsˈtrebɐ] to observe
ustribati /us.tri.ˈba.ti/ [ʊstrɪˈbatɪ] observation
priscava /pris.ˈka.va/ [prɪsˈkavɐ] to pre-dig
scava /ˈska.va/ [ˈskavɐ] to excavate
scavati /ska.ˈva.ti/ [skɐˈvatɪ] excavation
ciutat /ki.u.ˈtat/ [kjʊˈtat] city
Iuan /i.u.ˈan/ [jʊˈan] John
Iacou /i.a.ˈko.u/ [jɐˈko͡ʊ̯] Jakob
Iuli /i.ˈu.li/ [ˈjulɪ] Julia
air /a.ˈir/ [ɐˈɪr] yesterday
aoi /a.ˈo.i/ [ɐˈo͡ɪ̯] today
mpre /m.pre/ [m̩pre] fill up
mpret /m.pret/ [m̩prɛt] filled up
dimpri /ˈdim.pri/ [ˈdɪmprɪ] empty out
dimprit /dim.ˈprit/ [dɪmˈprɪt] emptied out

Sandhi

Nasals

In consonant clusters, the point of articulation is sometimes assimilated: n is [ŋ] before c g and [m] before b p. n m are both [ɱ] before v f. These shifts are partially shown in spelling when morphemes join: e.g. n + vrot > mvrot, but this is not shown across word boundaries.

Diphthongs

Phonetically, dialects may exhibit diphthongs, although phonemically, there are none. I.e., diphthongs do not influence determination of stress. The following table lists all possible diphthongs that a speaker may have, but dialects and ideolects may differ in what diphthongs are actually used. This text will show phonetic pronunciation with the maximum amount of diphthongs, just to show what is possible, but speakers may have much less, maybe none.

Basically all vowel sequences ending with u or i as well as those starting with i may be diphthongs. Vowels sequences starting with u are very unlikely, maybe only loan words have them, so these are not shown in this section.

As usual, e o cannot occur in unstressed position.
spelling phoneme
stressed,
open
stressed,
closed
unstressed
au /au/ [a͡ʊ̯] [a͡ʊ̯] [ɐ͡ʊ̯]
eu /eu/ [e͡ʊ̯] [e͡ʊ̯] -
iu /iu/ [i͡ʊ̯] [i͡ʊ̯] [ɪ͡ʊ̯]
ou /ou/ [o͡ʊ̯] [o͡ʊ̯] -
ai /ai/ [a͡ɪ̯] [a͡ɪ̯] [ɐ͡ɪ̯]
ei /ei/ [e͡ɪ̯] [e͡ɪ̯] -
oi /oi/ [o͡ɪ̯] [o͡ɪ̯] -
ui /ui/ [u͡ɪ̯] [u͡ɪ̯] [ʊ͡ɪ̯]
ia /i͡a/ [jaˑ] [ja] []
ie /i͡e/ [jeˑ] [] -
io /i͡o/ [joˑ] [] -
iu /i͡u/ [juˑ] [] []
Note that iu can be two different diphthongs, depending on stress. Unstressed, usually [] is preferred.

Falling diphthongs, ending in i, u, like au ou ai ui ..., are always considered long (if the dialect has them). This means that the main vowel is only reduced in quality in unstressed position, but not due to a closing consonant.

Rising diphthongs, starting with j, may be long or short in speakers that have them, i.e., depending on the closedness of the syllable.

Diphthongs [j͡ɪ], [u͡ʊ̯] do not occur, because they collapsed into i and u, respectively.

No falling diphthongs will be used if stress falls on the second vowel.

No raising diphthongs will be used if stress falls on the first vowel.

spelling syl. & stress pronunciation translation phenomenon
Caitan /ka.i.ˈtan/ [ka͡ɪ̯ˈtan] Caietana a i are unstressed: falling diphthong
Mai /ˈma.i/ [ma͡ɪ̯] May a is stressed: falling diphthong
pais /pa.ˈis/ [pɐˈɪs] country i is stressed: no diphthong
cava /ˈka.va/ [ˈkavɐ] to dig a is stressed: falling diphthong
ariva /a.ˈri.va/ [ɐˈrivɐ] to arrive i is stressed: falling diphthong, i.e., not []
glurius /ɡlu.ri.ˈus/ [ɡlʊrˈjʊs] glorious u is stressed: rising diphthong
Iuli /i.ˈu.li/ [ˈjulɪ] Julia u is stressed: rising diphthong
ciutat /ki.u.ˈtat/ [kjʊˈtat] town i u are unstressed: usually rising diphthong

Sequences of Same and Similar Phonemes

Sequences of same vowels collapse into a single vowel, even across word boundaries. I.e., There are no long vowels. This happens after stress and syllable openness is considered, i.e., there is no change in stress or vowel quality.

Similarly, sequences of same phonemic, but reduced and unreduced vowel collapse into the unreduced vowel, e.g. [] > [i]. Stress and vowel qualities do not change.

Sequences of same consonants collapse into a single consonant inside words (no geminates), but are kept and pronounced across word boundaries. Some pronological assimilation will occur, particularly gemination, e.g., two plosives merge such that only one release is audible, but making the merged consonant long. The same happens to most consonants, but the effect is less obvious as the result probably sounds just like pronouncing two of the same consonant. For nasals, if the second nasal is syllabic, it stays that way and the first nasal is pronounced separately as a coda of the previous syllable.

Sequences of two different plosives may merge similarly in that the first plosive loses its audible release. The sequence keeps its two consonant length. This is not universally done but only by some dialects/idolects, so it is not marked in this text.

Similary, nasal release or no audible release occurs with plosive plus homoorganic nasal sequences. For some dialects/ideolects, it may occur with non-homorganic nasals, particularly if the nasal's point of articulation is closer to the lung. Due to the diversity of realisaion, and since this level of detail may confuse readers, this is not marked in this document.

For lexicalised phrases that act as a single word, more assimilation may occur: double consonants and vowels may collapse into single ones, etc. This is not reflected in the phonetic descriptions in this text if the words are written separately, because such entries are usually written as one word.

spelling syl. & stress pronunciation translation phenomenon
posi iman /ˈpo.si i.ˈman/ [ˈposɪ ɪˈman] put a magnet vowel + vowel: syl. po is still open
posi butic /ˈpo.si bu.ˈtik/ [ˈposɪ bʊˈtɪk] put a bottle no vowel + vowel: syl. po is open
mos iman /mos i.ˈman/ [mɔ sɪˈman] bite a magnet syl. mos is closed
acit talian /a.ˈkit ta.li.ˈan/ [ɐˈkɪt̚ tɐlˈjan] Italian vinegar consonant + consonant: syl. cit is still closed
acit di Tali /a.ˈkit di ˈta.li/ [ɐˈkɪt̚ di ˈtalɪ] vinegar from Italy t + d: syl. cit is still closed
ali i oli /ˈa.li i ˈo.li/ [ˈalɪ i ˈolɪ] garlic and oil written separately here, but usually lexicalised as a single word
alioli /a.li.ˈo.li/ [ɐlˈjolɪ] aioli functions and is pronounced as one word
ap p'ucel /ap pu.ˈkel/ [ap̚ pʊˈkɛl] water for the bird pi stays audible as p is pronounced separately
ap ucel /ap u.ˈkel/ [a pʊˈkɛl] bird water without the pi
ap marel /ap ma.ˈrel/ [ap mɐˈrɛl] yellow water probably has nasal/no audible release of p (not shown)
ultra nic /ˈul.tra nik/ [ˈʊltrɐ nɪk] small vulture probably has nasal/no audible release of t (not shown)

Consonants Cross Syllable Breaks

Consonants at ends of words before vowels in the next word are pronounced as if they belonged to the second word. This does not change the closedness of the last syllable of the first word, i.e., does not change the vowel quality of that syllable.

Similarly, if a word ending in a vowel is followed by a word that starts with a consonants cluster, the first consonant may be pronounced as if part of the previous syllable -- for most consonants, this may be an insignificant pronunciation difference, but it may reduce the number of syllable when a syllabic nasal becomes non-syllabic by this.

spelling syl. & stress pronunciation translation phenomenon
posi iman /ˈpo.si i.ˈman/ [ˈposɪ ɪˈman] put a magnet s moved into syllable with following i
mos iman /mos i.ˈman/ [mɔ sɪˈman] bite a magnet s moved into syllable with following i
posi sal /ˈpo.si sal/ [ˈposɪ sal] put salt s is not a cluster, will not move back
posi spraga /ˈpo.si ˈspra.ɡa/ [ˈposɪs ˈpraɡɐ] put esparagus s can move back out of cluster: not much difference in pronunciation
vis Mrac /vis mrak/ [vɪs m̩brak] towards Marcus m is syllabic
ami Mrac /ˈa.mi mrak/ [ˈamɪm brak] love Marcus m can move back and becomes non-syllabic
mpiri /ˈmpi.ri/ [m̩ˈpirɪ] empire syllabic nasal
ni mpiri /ni ˈmpi.ri/ [nim ˈpirɪ] in an/the empire nasal is non-syllabic
fimra /ˈfim.ra/ [ˈfɪmbrɐ] woman nasal is non-syllabic

History

Vowel Development

Vowel Shift Overview This figure shows an overview of what happened to the vowels from Classical Latin to Modern Tirkunan.

Vowel phones shown in the same colour are allophones of the same phoneme.

In detail, the following is shown. The Classical Latin vowel system had ten phonemic vowels, five long ones and five short ones, /iː i eː e aː a oː o uː u/ which were probably pronounced [iː ɪ eː ɛ aː a oː ɔ uː ʊ].

In Vulgar Latin, phonemic length was lost, but the quality of the vowels was retained, with three mergers: /aː a/ > /a/, /eː ɪ/ > /e/, and /oː ʊ/ > /o/. The result is a seven vowel system in Proto-Romance: /i e ɛ a u o ɔ/.

The vowels in Proto-Romance then came to be pronounced long and short again, depending on whether a syllable was open or closed: open syllables had long vowels, closed syllables short vowels. This is shown by the split of all vowels in the middle of the figure.

Tirkunan developed differently from this point than many other Romance languages. It collapsed the seven vowels with phonetic length into a five vowel system with phonetic length by four mergers: [e i] > [ɪ], [eː ɛː] > [], [o u] > [ʊ], and [oː ɔː] > [].


S25 Vowel Shift This figure shows the final vowel shift that reduced the four vowel heights of Proto-Romance to the three heights of Tirkunan.

The phones of modern Tirkunan are not lengthened much, so the modern phones can be given as [iˑ ɪ eˑ ɛ aˑ a uˑ ʊ oˑ ɔ]. In stressed syllables, the lengthening is slightly stronger.

Note that in this document, vowel length is usually not indicated for Tirkunan pronunciation, even in phonetic descriptions, since the differences are rather small.



Morphology / Spluri Frum

Inflection

The morphology has greatly simplified compared to Latin. Tirkunan is grammatically isolating with agglutinative derivation.

The verb is usually quite complex morphologically in Romance languages, but it is undeclinable in Tirkunan, except maybe for a past participle, which could also be counted as derivation.

All tenses, aspects, and moods are formed analytically with auxiliaries. The analytical forms that have completely replaced the old system, are still quite typical for Romance. There is only one irregular verb (e 'to be') with a few irregular verb forms, the rest of the verbal system is analytical and regular.

Tirkunan has dropped all grammatical gender distinctions.

There is no trace of Latin case. This is just like in many Romance languages. Tirkunan has thoroughly dropped case from pronouns, too.

Derivation

The derivational system of Tirkunan is quite productive. Stems never change irregularly when affixes are added. When Latin allows several ways to form a word, often only one has survived and was generalised to be used in many more cases, e.g. endings -icvs and -īvvs have merged into -iu.

As an example, from the verb am 'to love', we can derive amat 'loved', amatur 'lover', ami 'love'.

Derivation happens by prefixing or suffixing. Homophonous affixes may be different in meaning depending on which kind of stem the are attached to, e.g. ni is 'not' when attached to nouns or adjectives, and is 'in-' when attached to verbs.

Nouns and adjectives are even more weakly distinguished than in Latin, so most noun affixes work for adjectives, too, and vice versa.

Word class changes are a frequent use for affixes, e.g., -(a)t when attached to a verb will make an adjective.

Prefixes that modify verbs can also be used to denominalise nouns, e.g., ni- 'in-' that usually modifes a verb, will create a verb when attached to a noun or adjective. This is a very productive way of denominalisation used more extensively in Tirkunan than in other Romance language, presumably because Tirkunan has lost all endings to distinguish a verb from a noun, in particular because the thematic vowels of verbs have dropped (except for many -īre verbs). E.g., while most Romance languages can naturally distinguish between 'the rain' and 'to rain', Tirkunan could not do so without a derivational affix, in this case ni+prui > mprui 'to rain'.

History

For most words, Old Tirkunan drops a final vowel if the preceding consonant was -l, -r, -n, -s, -t, -c or -p (voiceless plosives or alveolar sonorants or sibilants), and if there was no final cluster except -(n,m,r,l,s)(p,t,c), and -rn. Final vowels that are not dropped collapse into -a (earlier [ə]). Nouns ending in rising diphthongs behaved similarly, dropping the main vowel, leaving the plain glide. This [j] or [w] glide becomes syllabic again and shows up as a final -i or -u in the corresponding words, e.g. glori < glōria, mpiri < impērivm, crou < corvvm.

Fusion and Elision

Tirkunan exhibits most prominently dropping of vowels or consonants when two morphemes are jointed in derivation or between words next to each other in a sentence. Some small and frequent words have alternative forms, depending on the preceding or following word. The following list shows the main rules, roughly from most widespread rule to most restricted/special.

Firstly, final 'a' in words and prefixes and initial 'a' in suffixes is always a very weak vowel that is dropped readily, because it derives from an epenthetic [ə].

A final u in words ending in a two-vowel sequence or in V(l,r)u, regularly becomes v when another vowel (except u) follows, e.g., when a derivational ending is suffixed that does not readily drop its initial vowel.

Adjacent same vowels merge into a single vowel. This is shown in spelling only inside words, but spoken language also exhibits this across words.

Final 'a' is dropped before vowels all words and affixes omra + umla > omr' umla 'humble man'
Final u becomes v between vowels many words deu + -at > divut 'debt'
Final u becomes v after vowel+(l,r) many words selu + -ac > silvac 'savage'
Final u stays u in other endings many words nascu + -i > nascui 'birth'
Initial 'a' is dropped after vowel all suffixes solu + -ati > suluti 'solution'
Vowel is dropped after/before same vowel all affixes nreu + -us > nrivus 'nervous

The general 'final "a" drops' rule is not shown in the lexicon, because it is universal. Still, as usual, there are exceptions to the rules even if the above table claims they apply to 'all' words. E.g. loan words ending in 'a' may not drop that 'a'. Such exceptions are clarified in the lexicon.

Many small words, particularly those that are often unstressed in a sentence, as well as affixes have additional rules of dropping vowels and consonants. These are not universally applied, but the lexicon lists this with each word and affix. The patterns repeat, i.e., this is not completely arbitrary, but follow the general rules of which consonant clusters and vowel sequences are acceptable -- typical those that occur already in stems. Typical phenomena are shown in the following table:

Final vowel is dropped before vowels small words and affixes li + umra > l'umra 'the shadow'
Final cons. is dropped before cons. small words and affixes suv + tabra > su tabra 'under (a/the) table'
Final vowel is dropped after vowel individual words ni + li > ni'l 'in the'
Initial phoneme is dropped special circumstances individual affixes supril + -itat > supriltat 'superiority'

The most complex rules are those of ni and li which drop the final vowel not only if a vowel follows, but also when a vowel precedes the word.

The interaction between preposition and article is special. Firstly, the article only fuses backwards with the previous word if that is a monosyllabic preposition -- it does not fuse backwards with any other word: sinti li ter, not *sinti'l ter.

Secondly, the fusion of preposition and article is preferred over fusion with surrounding words: ni'l ap 'in the water' instead of *ni l'ap.

In compound phrases with (dropped) di, final vowels drop in more words than usually. Because this process is not regular and cannot be generalised into a rule, these cases are all marked in the lexicon. Also, it is not wrong to keep these vowels, it is just that usually, the additional abbreviation is used.

oli + di + uliu > oli d'uliu 'olive oil' long version with di
oli + uliu > ol' uliu 'olive oil' usual version without -i
oli + uliu > oli uliu 'olive oil' uncommon but not wrong

Here are some sample sentences with elision phenomena in conjunctions, notably ci.

Pracu mi c'amic mi veni. 'I am glad that my friend comes.'
Iui nu veni pi c'autu se e ruput. 'Judy does not come because her car is broken.'
Iui nu veni mitis c'e bus. 'Judy does not come even though there's a bus.'

Apostrophe and Stress

The apostrophe is used to indicate vowels and consonants that have been dropped due to elision and sandhi, and also to indicate the case of a word whose last syllable is stressed if it ends in a vowel. No apostrophe is used in compounds, i.e., before -.

Consonants dropped from single syllable words are not indicated with an apostrophe: cu ti 'with you' instead of *cu' ti. Otherwise, dropped consonants and vowels are indicated by an apostrophe.

For multisyllabic words, this apostrophe at the end also indicates that stress is still on the last syllable if a consonant is dropped. There are currently no words where this happens; in older Tirkunan texts, this may be encountered.

A dropped vowel or consonant is indicated on the side that causes the drop (i.e., not the side that drops the phoneme): racu can 'some dog' and ni'l reni 'in the kingdom', although the i drops on the right side of li. If both sides could trigger the drop, then the right side carries the apostrophe, because the only way this can happen is if the first word is be a preposition: ni'l ap 'in the water' instead of *ni l'ap.

Theoretically, when prefixing a syllable to a mono-syllabic word that ends in a vowel, to indicate that stress stays on the last syllable, an apostrophe could be written at the end of the resulting word: an imagined *di + xe would become *dixe'. This apostrophe would then be removed if a suffix was added: *dixe' + (a)t would become *dixet. The lexicon can mark such stems with the 'stressed' feature, but there are no such stems in the current lexicon, i.e., what actually happens is that stress moves backwards in such situations in Tirkunan (like already in Classical Latin), so no apostrophe is needed, e.g., di + mpre becomes dimpri [ˈdɪmprɪ].

The drop of a single vowel after a consonant at the end of a stem does not change stress. However, if a ends in two vowels and is at least trisyllabic, dropping the final vowel might, a similar situation could theoretically occur that would require a stress marker at the end, e.g., in an imagined *axia + axa, the result could theoretically be axi' axa. However, Tirkunan does not have stems that behave like that -- the stress would shift backwards in this case, and no apostrophe would be needed. Also, there is no word in the current Tirkunan lexicon that drops a final vowel if the word ends in two vowels.

White space around an apostrophe is handled as follows. Firstly, no additional whitespace is used when adding an apostrophe. If only a single letter remains in the word that dropped a letter, whitespace is removed between an apostrophe on the right side and the following word: l'ap instead of *l' ap. No whitespace is used either between an apostrophe on the left side and a previous monosyllabic word: di'l instead of di 'l. Otherwise, normal whitespace is used.

The following table shows many elision phenomena for prepositions, articles, and verbs, as well as usage of the apostrophe:

ni reni [ni ˈrenɪ] in a/the kingdom
n'un reni [nʊn ˈdrenɪ] in a kingdom
ni'l reni [nɪl ˈrenɪ] in the kingdom
ni gradin [ni ɡrɐˈdɪn] in a/the garden
n'un gradin [nʊŋ ɡrɐˈdɪn] in a garden
ni'l gradin [nɪl ɡrɐˈdɪn] in the garden
can ni mpiri [kan nim ˈpirɪ] a/the dog in a/the empire
ni mpiri [nim ˈpirɪ] in a/the empire
anra ni mpiri [ˈandrɐ nim ˈpirɪ] walk in a/the empire
n'un mpiri [nʊm m̩ˈpirɪ] in an empire
ni'l mpiri [nɪl m̩ˈpirɪ] in the empire
n'umra [ˈnʊmbrɐ] in a/the shadow
anra n'umra [ˈandrɐ ˈnʊmbrɐ] walk in a/the shadow
n'un umra [nʊ ˈnʊmbrɐ] in a shadow
ni'l umra [nɪ ˈlʊmbrɐ] in the shadow
cu reni [ku ˈrenɪ] with a/the kingdom
cu gradin [ku ɡrɐˈdɪn] with a/the garden
cun un gradin [kʊ nʊŋ ɡrɐˈdɪn] with a garden
cu'l gradin [kʊl ɡrɐˈdɪn] with the garden
cu mpiri [kum ˈpirɪ] with a/the empire
cun un mpiri [kʊ nʊm m̩ˈpirɪ] with an empire
cu'l mpiri [kʊl m̩ˈpirɪ] with the empire
cun omra [kʊ ˈnɔmbrɐ] with a/the man
cun un omra [kʊ nʊ ˈnɔmbrɐ] with a man
cu'l omra [kʊ ˈlɔmbrɐ] with the man
letr-imanisma [lɛt rɪmɐˈnɪsmɐ] electromagnetism

Pronouns / Prunumra

sg. pl.
1. mi no
2.informal ti
2.formal vo
2.representative tro
3. eli
impersonal se
reflexive se
relative ce

Morphological case and mostly also number have disappeared, also for pronouns. The pronouns are not distinguished by case, i.e., subject and object pronouns, as well as oblique pronouns and possessive pronouns are the same, and none of the pronouns usually reduces, i.e., no vowel or consonant may drop.[7]

Number has disappeared in the personal pronouns, too, except in the first person. The second person reinterpreted plural to indicate formal vs. informal addressing, based on the usage of the plural form for formal address in earlier stages of the language. The third person pronoun lost its number just like nouns did, mainly because referring back with number information is pointless if no number is conveyed in the preceding noun phrase. This means that Tirkunan has only one third person pronoun left, which is often not enough to disambiguate what it references, so noun phrases or demonstrative determiners with selector nouns are often used instead.

Note that reflexive se cannot be in subject position. The impersonal pronoun se is used if no specific entity is expressed. This pronoun is exclusively used as a subject, complementing the reflexive pronoun.

Note that pronouns are not mandatory, in particular subject pronouns. This can lead to ambiguities that have to be resolved by context, because the verb does not carry any information about person either.

Note that how eli behaves differently after a vowel than the article: e.g. di + eli (pronoun) is d'eli while di + li (article) is di'l.

The pronoun tro is used in conversations, often formal, to refer to the organisation, company, or group the interlocutor is part of, often in order to avoid direct addressing of the interlocutor. It derives from tva horda 'your gang'. The plural is used when talking to a group of representatives.

Since tro is 2nd person, for its reflexive, also tro is used, not se.

The 3rd person pronoun se is strictly reflexive. This pronoun is only used to refer to a 3rd person, i.e., reflexive 1st and 2nd persons are referred to using 1st and 2nd person pronouns, resp.

Mi va ni gradin mi. I (am) walk(ing) in my garden.
Vo va ni gradin vo. You (are) walk(ing) in your garden.
Tro va ni gradin tro. Your guy (is) walk(ing) into his garden.
Eli va ni gradin se. He/She (is) walk(ing) in his/her (own) garden.
Eli va ni gradin eli. He/She (is) walk(ing) in his/her (someone else's) garden.
Se va ni gradin se. One (is) walk(ing) in one's (own) garden.
Se va ni gradin eli. One (is) walk(ing) in his/her (someone else's) garden.

Possessives / Pusivuti

Possessives follow the noun and are formed with d(i) + noun/pronoun:

pau di fimra father of a/the woman
pau d'omra father of a/the man
pau di'l omra father of the man
pau d'eli his father

Pronouns follows the same pattern.[8] Also not that di may drop, particularly for lexicalised phrases and also for pronouns, so shorter possessives exist:

pau di mi my father
pau mi my father
pau no our father
pau ti your father
pau tro your people's father
pau se his/her (refl.) father
pau eli his/her (non-refl.) father

Preferably, possessive pronouns follow a complex noun phrase they modify if it is sufficiently lexicalised. I.e., if a phrase is lexicalised 'enough', then inserting into the phrase is less likely. E.g. spastur nuc 'nutcracker' and spastur nuc mi 'my nutcracker'. Strictly speaking, this phrase is ambiguous and could be understood as 'the cracker of my nuts', but because it is sufficiently lexicalised, the ambiguity is resolvable. On the other hand, spastur mi nuc or even spastur mi di nuc are not wrong, just not preferred.[9] Similarly, possessives generally follow adjectives: spastur nuc vrir mi 'my green nutcracker'.


Determiners / Ditrimatiu

li, l', 'l < ille, illa article the (singular) reduces to l' before vowels and, otherwise, to 'l after vowels
lur < illōrvm article the (plural)
un < vna, vnv(m) article a, an coincides with number 1
cul < eccv(m) ille determiner, pronoun this; that; this one; that one
tut < tōtv(m)? determiner, pronoun every, all
catu < *cata vnvm determiner, pronoun each, each one, everyone
racu < aliqv(is) vn(vm) determiner, pronoun some(one), some(thing), any(one), any(thing) (singular)
nisu < ne ipsv(m) vn(vm) determiner, pronoun no-one, none, nobody, nothing, no
rapan < aliqvant- determiner, pronoun, adverb some (amount or plural), somewhat
nimra < nēminem pronoun no-one, none, nobody, nothing (more formal, more old-style)
nint < nē gentem determiner, pronoun no-one, none, nobody, nothing (more emphatic)

As can be seen, the difference many other Romance languages draw between 'person' and 'thing' has been lost in all the pronouns and determiners, e.g. nint and nimra and nisu can all mean 'nothing' as well as 'nobody'.

Number is indicated on the article. There are the following articles:

li [li] 'the': singular definite
lur [lʊr] 'the': plural definite
un [ʊn] 'a/an': singular indefinite, also numeral 'one'

The articles are optional and are used only rarely, in constrast to many other Romance languages.

Note that there is no plural indefinite article. 'Some' can be expressed using rapan.

In some situations, Tirkunan does use the definite articles, e.g.:

pronoun-like phrases from numbers lur do [lʊr do] 'the two'
un bal [ʊm bal] a dance
un cafi [ʊŋ ˈkafɪ] a cafe; a coffee
un fimra [ʊɱ ˈfɪmbrɐ] a woman
un mpiri [ʊm m̩ˈpirɪ] an empire
un omra [ʊ ˈnɔmbrɐ] a man

Nouns / Sustantiu

Nouns have only one form and are not inflected.

Since number is marked only on pronouns and articles, noun phrases are often also underspecified for number: gen filic 'a/the/some happy man/men/woman/women/person/people. The previous example also shows that the loss of the thematic gender vowel from Latin is continued in the lexicon, which often has gender-neutral nouns where English would be more specific, e.g. the very frequent gen 'man/woman/person' and many kin terms like tiul 'aunt/uncle' and fili 'son/daughter'.

History

The declension system of Latin was dropped quickly in Tirkunan. More quickly than in other Romance languages. The accusative singular form, pronounced without -m in Vulgar Latin, was the only form that was left over. Most vowels in endings collapsed to only a /ə/ very quickly. In some cases, the thematic vowel of the declension was mistaken to be part of the stem, so some traces of the old -u- declension are still visible today.

Construction

To model the history of nouns, I use the following simulation. It takes care of the collapse of declension classes and deterioration of endings.

Nouns are based on the accusative singular form, but a general /-əm/ ending is assumed instead of the original ending, because declensions are assumed to having vanished greatly in late Vulgar Latin and so 1st (-a-), 2nd (-o-), 3rd (mixed), and 5th (-e) declensions are basically treated the same.

However, as some (very few) -i- declension nouns and some -u- (4th) declension nouns retained the -i-/-u- in the form of a final stem glide., assumed /jəm/ and /wəm/ endings are used. (In the alternate timeline, Þrjótrunn also retained the 4th declension for some words, so the Vulgar Latin there may be a little different from ours.)

Adjectives are derived in the same way, starting with the f.acc.sg. form (there should be no difference when starting with other genders' acc.sg. form).

Note that since the GMP is made for shifting words that resemble the Classical Latin written form to make life easier (it is the look of those classical forms the author is more familiar with), input is reconstructed to a classical form, and thus we use the /m/ ending although it is dropped by the GMP and does not cause any change the result. This is just a technical cheat for making it look like an accusative – this conlang is based on Vulgar Latin nevertheless. The GMP handles Vulgar forms, too.

Classical
nom.sg.
Declension
Acc.Sg
stem-theme-ending
Input for GMP
stem-(theme-)ending
Tirkunan Pronunciation
porta 1st (-a-) port-a-m *port-əm prot [prɔt]
corvvs 2nd (-o-) corv-v-m *corv-əm crou [kro͡ʊ̯]
imperivm 2nd (-o-) imperi-v-m *imperi-əm mpiri [m̩ˈpirɪ]
bonvs,-a,-vm 1st, 2nd (-a-, -o-) bon-a-m *bon-əm bon [bɔn]
nox 3rd (consonantal) noct--em *noct-əm not [nɔt]
tvrris 3rd (-i-) tvrr-i-m *tvrr-jəm tori [ˈtorɪ]
fēlīx 3rd (consonantal) fēlīc-e-m *fēlīc-əm filic [fɪˈlɪk]
portvs 4th (-u-) port-v-m *port-wəm protu [ˈprotʊ]
dīēs 5th (-e-) dī-e-m *di-əm di [di]

There are some exceptions from this construction rule, especially for very short words, e.g. deu < dēvs.


Adjectives / Aiatiu

Attributive adjectives always follow the noun they modify.

The comparative is formed with pru 'more'. The superlative is formed by using masma 'most'. For smaller comparison, min 'less' is used, which has the superlative mimra. The ending -is < -issimvs is used for an absolute superlative.

ciutat gran a/the large town positive
ciutat pru gran a/the larger town comparative of superiority
ciutat masma gran the largest town superlativ of superiority
ciutat min gran a/the less large town comparative of inferiority
ciutat mimra gran the least large town superlativ of inferiority
ciutat granis very large town absolute superlative
ciutat mrut gran very large town adverbial modification: 'very'
ciutat trop gran a/the town that is too large adverbial modification: 'too'
ciutat puc gran a/the town that is a bit large adverbial modification: 'bit'
pru bon better
masma bon best
pru mal worse
masma mal worst

Also note the usage of gran 'big/famous one' and san 'saint': they are adjectives and follow the noun, unlike other Romance languages.

Cral Gran Charlemagne
Ciceli San Saint Cecily

There are no synthetic comparatives or superlatives in Tirkunan, not even of the very common irregular comparatives 'best' and worst' like in other Romance languages.[10]

Distinction of Adjective vs. Noun

In Tirkunan, the distinction between adjectives and nouns is weak. E.g., the ending -atur is often used to form adjectives while -tor was used exclusively for noun formation from verbs in Latin and adjectives used participle endings, e.g., muritur 'mortal (both adj. and noun)'.[11]

The boundary is further blurred by Tirkunan's tendency to drop the connective di preposition between a noun and a modifying noun phrase, e.g., sup cou bou vs. sup di cou di bou 'oxtail soup'.

There still is a formative ending -an to derive adjectives from nouns, derived from and similar to -ānvs and -ālis, but this gets more and more unimportant, especially in spoken language.

So when the lexicon lists a noun or an adjective, using that word as the respective other word class is likely also possible.


Adverbs / Avreu

Adverbial that are single words are called 'adverbs'. Adverbials are placed before the word or sentence they modify, or can also follow the verb.

In elliptic sentences without verb, when the adverb logically modifies the whole phase, they usually follow the subject and precede the object: mi ncui 'me, too', mi ncui ti '?I also you.'

com < qvōmodo 'how'
sim < sīc illō modō 'so, in this way'
tan < tanqvam 'so, so much'
crai < crās 'tomorrow'
aoi < ad hōdie 'today'
air < ab herī 'yesterday'
aur < ad hōra 'now'
laur < ad illam hōram 'then'
piur < per hōra 'already'
ncui < hanc hōdie 'also'
ncur < hanc hōra 'still, again'
mrut < mvltvm 'very, very much, very many'

Adjectives can be used as adverbs without modification.[12]


Conjunctions / Cuniunti

Conjunctions are generally unstressed, so all the vowels collapse to unstressed a, i, u. Conjunctions that are derived from other words (e.g., from relative pronouns or adverbs) also lose stress and, therefore, may have different vowels.

Conjunction Translation Derives From Translation
i and
sinu but
upur or
i ncur and yet
nipi either, neither
c(i) that, than ce who, what, that
pi c(i) because pi ce why, therefore
u(v) where ou where
cum how com how
si if
caur when
upur...upur... either...or
nipi...nipi... neither...nor
nu sul...sinu ncui... not only...but also, both...and

Prepositions / Pripusiti

a at, to, for
di, d' of, off, from
ni, n' in, into, to, on
pi, p' for, by, because of
pur through, during, by (passive agent), by means of
vis towards
tra between, inside, within
cu(n) with
sint(i) without
acas to, at (s.o.'s home, office etc.)
cuntra against
spra over, above, about
su(v) under
avan before, in front of
apui after, behind
aprup near, close to, next to
furi outside of, except
afin until, up to
dis since, starting from, from

Note that usage of prepositions is largely lexicalised, i.e., translating does not mean to map prepositions 1:1 according to the this table. One typical source of confusion is the preposition 'on', which has no direct equivalent in Tirkunan. In other Romance languages, a preposition may have been formed, either by reinterpreting spra or by using a derivative of sv̄rsvm. In Tirkunan, usually ni is used. E.g. ni tabra 'on the table', ni lun 'on the moon'.

'Weak' consonansts will surface before vowels, 'weak' vowels are dropped before vowels. There are no other phenomena to avoid hiatus, e.g. with a + vowel. As usual, epenthetic phones may emerge, e.g. in n + l.

cu lat [ku lat] with milk
cun ap [kʊ nap] with water
su lat [su lat] under milk
suv ap [sʊ vap] under water
sinti lat [ˈsɪntɪ lat] without milk
sint ap [sɪn tap] without water
ni lat [ni lat] in milk
n'ap [nap] in water
spra lat [spra lat] above milk
spra ap [spra ap] above water
avan lat [ɐˈvan dlat] in front of (the) milk
avan ap [ɐˈva nap] in front of (the) water

Tirkunan has a tendency in many dialects to drop the di preposition entirely when expressing a genetive construction or in ordinals, particularly in lexicalised and very common phrases. This is reflected also in standard language and in the lexicon.

mricat di pruc mricat pruc flea market
Pul Iuan Di Do Pul Iuan Do John Paul the Second

Numbers / Nobra

Cardinals

The basic digits 0,..,9, as well as 20,..,90 and the larger numbers 100, 200, 1000, 2000, etc., are typical for a Romance language.

Tirkunan has very simply constructed numbers for 11,..,19, by using deci+1,...,9.[13] The numbers 20, 30, ..., 90 derive from the original Latin.[14]

0 nul
1 un 11 deci un 10 deci
2 do 12 deci do 20 vinti
3 tre 13 deci tre 30 trinti
4 patru 14 deci patru 40 patrinti
5 cim(p) 15 deci cim(p) 50 cimpinti
6 ses 16 deci ses 60 sisinti
7 set 17 deci set 70 sitinti
8 ot 18 deci ot 80 utinti
9 nou 19 deci nou 90 nuvinti
21 vinti un 32 trinti do 43 patrinti tre
100 centi 200 do centi 120 centi vinti
1000 mili 2000 do mili
1e6 (miluni)
1e6 migani < mega- + -ni M
1e9 gigani < giga- + -ni G
1e12 tirani < tera- + -ni T
1e15 pitani < peta- + -ni P
1e18 isani < esa- + -ni E
1e21 sitani < seta- + -ni Z
1e24 iutani < iota- + -ni Y

The number un 'one' also acts as the indefinite article.

Longer numbers are stringed together with the largest exponent first. Powers of thousands are grouped . An orignal i 'and' that linked together numbers has fused to the end of 10, 20,..., 90, 100, ..., and no i is used anymore.

For numbers starting at a million, Tirkunan has abandoned the older system of easily confused long and short scale (billion vs. milliard) and adopted the SI prefixes as names for numbers, which is effectively the short scale, but internationally harmonised. The suffix -ni is derived from the suffix of the now obsolete miluni 'million'. E.g., '299 792 458' is do centi nuvinti nou migani set centi nuvinti do mili patru centi cimpinti ot.

For numbers larger than 1e24, scientific base 10 notation is used, using viril for the decimal point, vic for 'times', and a for exponentiation. For example '1.417·1032' is un viril patru un set vic deci a trinti do.

Negative numbers are prefixed with min 'minus', e.g., '6.62607016·10-34' is read as ses viril ses do ses nul set nul un ses vic deci a min trinti patru.

Addition 'plus' is pru used as a conjunction, and 'minus' is min. 'Is equal to' or 'equals' is expressed as e pal a. E.g. '5 + 3 = 8' is read as cim pru patru e pal a nou.

Ordinals

The original synthetic ordinal number of Latin have been lost. Ordinal numbers in Tirkunan are formed analytically by using di + cardinal.[15]

gen di deci a/the tenth man/woman/person
li gen di deci the tenth man/woman/person
un gen di deci a tenth man/woman/person
Pap Iuan Pul Di Do Pope John Paul the Second
Pap Bindit Di Deci Ses Pope Benedict the Sixteenth

The use of di is optional and often left out, particularly in colloquial speech, because it sounds like counting and meaning roughly the same, basically like 'third person' vs. 'person no. three': gen di tre vs. gen tre.

There is an irregular ordinal number, marked in the lexicon as word type 'adj.num.':

prim first
gen prim ni lun first person on the moon

Fractions

Fractions in Tirkunan are similar to ordinals, but they usually use a connecting pi. I.e., the formation of fractionals is completely analytic. Fractions are also used to express 'percent' pi centi, and 'per mille' pi mili, and 'ppm' pi migani, etc. Fractions behave syntactically like normal numbers, i.e., as a quantifier, they precede the noun. If it is a single unit, the un is sometimes dropped in colloquial speech.

un pi tre a third
tre pi patru three quarters
un p'ot litra vin an eighth of a litre of wine
p'ot litra vin an eighth of a litre of wine
patrinti ot pi centi gen fu fimra 48% of the people were women

There is an irregular fraction, marked in the lexicon simply as word type 'num.' like cardinal numerals:

mei half
mei litra vin half a litre of wine

Prefixes

The prefixes are based on SI numeric prefixes. Following the SI guidance, the prefix abbreviations are exactly as in SI. However, the pronunciation is adapted to Tirkunan phonology. Also, some prefix names were given a different suffix vowel to avoid confusion with Tirkunan number words deci, centi, mili.

Numeric prefixes are attached with a hyphen because they retain a secondary stress, i.e., they form compounds with the modified noun.

iota- 1e24 Y yotta-
seta- 1e21 Z zetta-
esa- 1e18 E exa-
peta- 1e15 P peta-
tera- 1e12 T tera-
giga- 1e9 G giga-
mega- 1e6 M mega-
cilu- 1e3 k kilo-
etu- 1e2 h hecto-
deca- 1e1 da deca-
decu- 1e-1 d deci-
centu- 1e-2 c centi-
milu- 1e-3 m milli-
micru- 1e-6 µ micro-
nanu- 1e-9 n nano-
picu- 1e-12 p pico-
fentu- 1e-15 f femto-
atu- 1e-18 a atto-
setu- 1e-21 z zepto-
iotu- 1e-24 y yocto-

Units

The units are based on SI.

sicun s second temp time
metra m metre lungitat length
cilu-gram kg kilogramme mas mass
amper A ampere crugument current
cilvin K kelvin timpratur temperature
mol mol mole canitat sustanti amount of substance
candela cd candela ntinditi luc luminous intensity

Some derived units:

gram g gram mas mass
volt V volt tinditi voltage
om Ω ohm risisti resistance
erts Hz hertz fripenti frequency
tsul J joule inergi energy

Verbs / Vreu

Verbs in Tirkunan only have one morphological form, i.e., they are not inflected, but some derivational forms exist, most notably -at, which forms a past passive participle. This is used in analytic verb forms. It is also often used to enrich the lexicon with adjectives (e.g. sicat 'dry') and nouns (e.g. riput 'receipt').

When an ending is added to a verb, like in any derivation, a possible final -a drops if the ending starts with a vowel. Likewise, an initial a- of endings drops after a possible i or u vowel on the verb stem.

A verb can be nominaliser, i.e., made into nouns or adjectives, in many ways using suffixes. The gerund or noun of process is formed by suffixing -ar: Mancar e bon 'Eating is good', Mi am mancar 'I like to eat' (lit. 'I love eating'), Mi e cansat di mancar 'I am tired of eating.'

Plain verb forms carry no tense information, i.e., the plain verb can be used for present, past, or future tense, and the meaning will be inferred from context. There are auxiliary verbs for marking tense. The only exception is the verb e, which expresses present tense and which has irregular past and future tense forms fu and eri, resp.

Participle

Participles are adjectives that derive from verbs. They can be used as nouns in Tirkunan with the meaning 'the ... one'. The verb e 'to be' has no participles. All other verbs regularly form one participle as follows, which is used in analytic verb forms, too.

am 'to love' da 'to give' lava 'to wash' lega 'to bind oi 'to hear' solu 'to solve' beu 'to drink'
past passive participle -(a)t amat 'loved' dat 'given' lavat 'washed' ligat 'bound' uit 'heard' sulut 'solved' bivut 'drunken'

The participle ending (a)t suffixes regularly in the way shown: vowels a, i, u are used depending on the ending of the stem. If the stem ends in vowel + u, then it changes to -vu. The stress may shift, which causes the stem vowel to reduce: e becomes i, and o becomes u.

Tirkunan likes to replace short ce relative clauses (typically V or V+Obj) by participle constructions: gen amat bin 'the man/woman/person very much loved' for gen ce e amat bin.

The participle present, the gerund, and the gerundive of Latin have merged into a single suffix -an, but this is pure derivation and does not survive in verb forms in Tirkunan.

Analytical Forms

The following table lists the verb forms of Tirkunan.

Plain Mi manc. I eat. / I ate. / I will eat.
Present Tense mo + verb[16] Mi mo manc. I eat.
Past Tense au + verb+(a)t Mi au mancat. I ate. / I have eaten. (Lit. 'I have eaten.')
Mi au tinut friu. I was cold. / I felt cold.
Future Tense veni + verb[17] Mi veni manc. I will eat. (Lit. 'I come eat.')
Mi veni veni. I will come.
Negation nu(n) + verb Mi nu manc. I don't eat.
Positive Emphasis si + verb Mi si manc. I do/did eat.
Present Passive e + verb+(a)t Mi e mancat. I am eaten.
Past Passive fu + verb+(a)t Mi fu mancat. I was eaten.
Future Passive eri + verb+(a)t Mi eri mancat. I will be eaten.
Progressive sta + verb Mi sta manc. I am/was/will be eating. (Lit. 'I stand to eat.')
Prospective sta pi + verb Mi sta pi manc. I am/was/will be about to eat. (Lit. 'I stand for eating.')
Interrogative is + phrase[18] Is ti manc? Do/Did/Will you eat?
Is cul e gen ce am ti? Is this the person who loves you?
Optative 'to be' sa Mar sa crar. Let the ocean be warm.
Optative Active sa + verb Ap sa coc. May the water cook.
No sa va. Let's go!
Optative Passive sa + verb+(a)t Luc sa fit. Let there be light.
Imperative va + verb Vo va am mi! Love me! (formal)
Va manc pan! Eat the bread!
Vo va manc! Eat! (formal)
drop S and O Manc! Eat!

For formal addressing, the optative is prefered over the imperative, as it is felt less direct and less rude. E.g., instead of Vo va manc!, the optative Vo sa manc! is used. Usually, the formal, polite phrases tend to be longer anyway: Vo sa manc pan, pi pracur! 'Please, try the bread.'

A corollary is that the passive imperative cannot be formed with a non-empty subject, because the passive never has an object. Passive imperatives seem to have limited usefulness anyway.

The progressive form has evolved from an earlier form with a, e.g., mi sta a manc. The preposition in this construction was lost and is not used anymore today. In some cases, the old construction may be easier to understand intuitively by speakers of other Romance languages, e.g., Mi sta a e mancat instead of modern Mi sta e mancat for 'I am being eaten.'

More analytical forms can be combined into longer forms. The following is a selection.

Present Progressive Mi mo sta manc. I am eating.
Past Progressive Mi au stat manc. I was eating. / I have been eating.
Future Progressive Mi veni sta manc. I will be eating. (Lit. 'I come stand eating.')
Present Progressive Passive Mi sta e mancat. I am being eaten.
Present Prospective Passive Mi sta p'e mancat. I am about to be eaten.
Past Progressive Passive Mi au stat e mancat. I was being eaten.
Future Progressive Passive Mi veni sta e mancat. I will be being eaten.
Interrogative Future Progressive Is mi veni sta manc? Will I be eating?
Optative Past Omra sa au mancat. May the man have eaten.
Optative Progressive Passive Cran sa sta e mancat. May the meat be being eaten.
Negation + Anything Mi nu sta manc. I am not eating.
Mi nun au mancat. I did not eat. / I have not eaten.
Is mi nu veni sta manc? Will I not be eating?
Nu manc! Don't eat (that)!

The general order of the verb phrase is as follows:

Mood Negation, Emphasis, Other Aux. Tense marker] Aspect marker Passive Marker Verb
sa, va nu, si, ro, ariva, fi, pos, deu, ... mo, au, veni sta, sta pi e, fu, eri V, V+(a)t

The order may be different if logic is different, e.g., the negation may be after 'other auxiliaries', as in 'I like not to read.' vs. 'I do not like to read.'. This group also allows multiple auxiliaries and nu to be stringed together.

Also, not the full sequence is possible: a tense marker is not used right before e, fu, eri is used, because that already contains the tense. Combining of analytical forms is further limited as the forms get longer. Especially spoken language does not like long sequences of auxiliaries and may leave things underspecified.

Also, the combination sta sta is usually not used. This will probably not hurt, because sta, as a stative verb, cannot really form the progressive (there is no progress while standing).

The interrogative particle is is not part of the syntactic verb phrase, but starts a YN-question and directly follows a fronted question pronoun or adverb.

Note that no participles of e or au are necessary for any verb forms. The irregular verb e and all its irregular derivatives (fu, eri, sa) have no participles.

Irregular Verb

The following irregular synthetic verb forms exist of the verb e 'to be'. e has no past passive participle.

sa optative auxiliary (derives from e)
sa optative passive auxiliary
fu was, were (past of e)
eri will be (future of e)

Some Verbs and Auxiliaries

e < est are, am, is Mi e frunar. I am a baker.
fu < fvit was, were Eli fu frunar. He/she/they was/were a baker/bakers.
eri < erit will be Ti eri frunar. Your will be a baker.
sa < *siat forms optative + verb Ap sa coc. Let the water cook.
e, fu, eri, sa   form passive + ppp Ti fu amat. You were loved.
mo < modo forms present tense + verb Mi mo manc. I eat (now).
au < hābet forms past tense + ppp Mi au vinit. I came.
veni < venit forms future tense Mi veni va. I will go.
va < vādit forms imperatives Va manc pan! Eat (the) bread!
pos < potest be able to Mi pos manc. I can eat.
ro < vvlt want to + verb Mi ro am ti. I want to love you.
ro < vvlt want Mi ro umra. I want (some) shadow.
sapi < sapit know how to + verb
sapi < sapit know
manc < *manticat eat
am < amat love
tenu < tenvt hold, have
fi < -ficit make, create; do; forms causative
va < vādit go
veni < venit come
di < dīcit say
deu < dēbet owe, be in debt, must
ariva < *arripat manage to do s.t. Mi ariva veni. I manage to come.
ariva < *arripat arrive at Mi ariva Tali. I arrive in Italy.

Note that tense and aspect are not mandatory categories. They are often derived from context. This is especially true in narratives, which generally use the plain verb instead of au+VERB--at. An exceptional verb is fu, the only synthetical past tense, which is used in narratives frequently.

Transitivity, Reflexivity

Verbs in Tirkunan can be either transitive (marked v.t. in the lexicon) or intransitive (v.i.), depending on whether they take an object or not. Further, the object may be se in which case the verb is said to be reflexive, marked (v.refl.) in the lexicon if a separate entry is necessary because the meaning is different from the transitive meaning.

Verbs that have no subject are marked additionally with '0s.' in the lexicon. This can happen both for transitive verbs and for intransitive verbs.

Verbs that make verbal phrases, i.e., stand-ins for intransitive verbs, from a following nouns or adjective are called 'copula' and marked 'v.cop.' in the lexicon. Syntactically, they are identical to transitive verbs if a noun follows, but adjectives may also directly follow, which is not the case for transitive verbs. Also, these verbs have no passive voice and cannot be used intransitively, though an intransitve homonymic verb may exist and will have a separate lexicon entry.

There also exist reflexive verbs that act similar to a normal copula, but do not allow nouns to follow, but only adjectives. These are marked as 'v.refl.cop.'.

Finally, auxiliary verbs are marked 'v.aux.' in the lexicon. These verbs can directly precede another verb to modify it.

scriu [skri͡ʊ̯] v.t. to write Ti scriu lebra. [tis kri͡ʊ̯ ˈlebrɐ] You write a book.
nat [nat] v.i. to swim No nat. [no nat] We swim.
mou [mo͡ʊ̯] v.refl. to move (by itself) Ap mou se. [ap mo͡ʊ̯ se] The water moves.
nivic [nɪˈvɪk] v.i.0s. to snow Aoi nivic. [ɐˈo͡ɪ̯ nɪˈvɪk] It is snowing today.
e [e] v.t.0s. to there be Ni capit e capil. [ni kɐˈpɪ te kɐˈpɪl] On the head, there is hair.
diveni [dɪˈvenɪ] v.cop. to become Mi diveni frot. [mi dɪˈvenɪ frɔt] I become strong.
senti [ˈsɛntɪ] v.refl.cop. to feel Senti mi mal. [ˈsɛntɪ mi mal] I feel bad.
ro [ro] v.aux. to want Eli ro e frau. [ˈelɪ ro e fra͡ʊ̯] He/she wants to be a blacksmith.

In many cases, transitive verbs can be used intransitively, by just dropping the object. E.g. scriu 'to write' can be used both as mi scriu lebra 'I write a book' and as mi scriu 'I write (something'). In this general case, the subject is semantically the same in the transitive and intransitive verbs.

Many reflexive verbs simply express that the object is the same as the subject, i.e., the subject acts upon the object. E.g. Lava mi. 'I wash myself.'

Reflexive verbs may also express an effect on the subject of the verb when the subject is semantically not an agent, but the patient of the homonymic transitive, usually causative, verb. E.g. for a transitive verb that implies causation like mou 'to move s.t.', the reflexive verb mou se means 'to move (by itself)', literally 'to move oneself', i.e., the effect of moving works on the subject, although the subject of mou se is not the semantical agent. These verbs are called uncausative verbs, and they are reflexive in Tirkunan quite consistently.

On the other hand, there are pairs of homonymic transtive and intransitive verbs, where again the subject of the intransitive verb corresponds with the object of the transitive verb, i.e., it is not the agent. If a (causative) effect is missing, then these intransitive verbs are usually not reflexive. E.g. flar v.t. 'to sense the smell of' vs. flar v.i. 'to emit smell'. The transitive verb is not causative here, so the intransitve one is not uncausative, so no reflexive se is used here. The reflexive verb, in these cases, corresponds with the transitive verb, e.g., flar se 'to sense the smell of oneself'.

History

From the verbs we see today in Tirkunan, it appears that Old Tirkunan often used frequentative verbs instead of the original Classical Latin verbs, e.g. we have vei, probably from vīsāre instead of *vid from vidēre.[19] Many Latin verbs have not survived into Tirkunan, often only the compound verbs survived. Probably for this reason, Tirkunan has a tendency to preserve the compound stem of verbs rather than the original stem.[20] From the compound forms, the isolated verb was often reconstructed by analogy (e.g. *ficere instead of facere), so we even find many original compound stem in isolated verbs in Tirkunan.

Construction

To model what has happend during the history of Tirkunan, I use the following simulation in the hope that the result is a plausible, also and especially for compound verbs and derived words like the participle or the actor noun.

The focus on derived words instead of the plain Latin present stem was chosen because the supine stem and the compound verbs are often more likely to have survived in existing Romance languages, were often frequentives have survived by not the plain verb (e.g. Italian cantare but not canere), and in loans, e.g. in English, which has receipt, deceive, occupy but no verb derived directly from capere. This means that generally, the one stem that Tirkunan choses is likely more recognisable and will feel more natural when it is derived from the supine stem of a compound verb stem.

All the rules in this section are not strict. Research into what non-reborrowed verb forms survived in modern Romance (I will particularly, but not exclusively, look at Catalan and Romanian) is necessary for most verbs.

Generally, in Tirkunan, verbs are usually derived from the supine stem of a compound verb stem, also for the isolated verb in Tirkunan. I.e., the isolated verb is regularised from the original Latin compound stem, e.g. fi < facere because of (inter)ficere. When the perfect particple is commonly regularised in modern Romance, then Tirkunan will derive the verb also from the present stem instead of the original supine stem.

Manual care is needed, e.g., final consonants may drop irregularly, or vowels or consonants may be added irregularly, e.g., taken from context in common usage. Common and short verbs usually need most of the manual care to derive a good stem.

In order to get a plausible participle, the thematic vowel or a final stem glide may be retained, e.g., solu < solvere and oi < avdīre. There are some basic rules: i-conjugation and stems with i-glide retain 'i'. Stems with u-glide retain 'u'. Verbs that form the supine with -atvm retain no thematic vowel.

Stressed or unstessed 'e' stems without a final glide are not consistently derived. Typically, but not always, verbs with stressed -ēre infinitive and pres.1sg. in -eō should only end in 'i' if the supine in Latin is -itvm and modern Romance language commonly have a perfect participle in 'i'. Modern Romance ofte has a perfect participle in 'u' here (the perfect in Latin is often in -vī), so an 'u' is feasible for these verbs, too. Also Catalan, Romanian, and Italian often have '-ut-' participles. E.g.: pracu < placēre, placitvm, mou < movēre. mōtvm.

Verbs in unstressed -ere are similar to stressed -ēre, but should have a slightly stronger tendency to retain 'i'. And they should be unlikely to have an 'u' stem. Retaining 'i' may be chosen if modern Romance has 'i' commonly, and/or of Latin has a pres.1sg. in -iō instead of plain , or a perfect in īvī, or if the supine stem is different from the present stem and ends in -itvm, e.g. posi < pōnere, ponō, positvm (irr. supine stem), beu < bibere, bibō, bibitvm.

Generally, verbs with infinitives in -ere or -ēre need to be checked in modern Romance languages to see which conjugation the verb usually ended up in (e.g. check whether Spanish has '-er' or '-ir') and what the perfect participle is and often also the actor noun should be checked.

In some cases, it may be that the original isolated stem is lost, particularly if it is very short, and if the stem vowel is easily reanalysed as a thematic vowel, e.g., esi < exīre. Also, if in latin, the thematic and stem vowels have fused, e.g. mpre < implēre.

Sometimes, the present stem should be chosen over the supine stem, e.g. if modern Romance is chaotic (so using the supine stem does not help make the verb more recognisable) or shows very different forms from Latin. E.g. ciri < (con)qvirere, (con)qvīsī, (con)qvisītvm, e.g., Romanian cere, cerut; cuceri, cucirit. Also, if the compound stem is a different conjugation as the isolated stem, choices may be reconsidered, e.g., qvaerere, qvaestvm but inqvirere, inqvisītvm or capere, captvm and recipere, receptvm but occvpō, occvpātvm.

To sound shift the verb, a proto-verb stem is constructed according to the above principles, and then /ə/ or // or // is added to that stem, which is then sound-shifted to simulate the stem extension.

Some examples:

present stem Tirkunan
infinitive isolated compound 1sg. supine stem input for GMP base perf.part. comment
amāre am am-ō am-āt *am-ə am amat
solvere solv solv-ō sol-v̄t *solv-ə solu sulut
avdīre avd avdi-ō avd-īt *avd-iə oi uit
timēre tim time-ō tim-it *tim-və temu timut cat., it., rom. have perf.part. in -ut-
sorbēre sorb sorbe-ō sorb-it *sorb-iə strobi strubit it., rom. have perf.part. in -it-, probably became *sorbīre
gavdēre gavd gavde-ō gāvīs *gavd-ə goi guit supine stem did not survive; no clear reason for -it- or -ut-
avdēre avd avde-ō avs *avs-ə vus vusat intrusive v-[21]
canēre can cane-ō cant *cant-ə cant cantat
facere fac fic fici-ō fec-t *fic-ə fi fit no -c so we get perf.part. right
discvtere qvat cvt cvti-ō cvss *cvss-ə discus discusat

Correlatives / Curilatiu

interrog.,
relative
no
all,
each
some indef.
few,
little
much,
many
dem.
generic
dem.
proximal
dem.
distal
single ce nisu catu racu cium cul cul ca cul la
number,
quantity
can tut rapan canum puc mrut tan tan ca tan la
quality cal nisu tal catu tal racu tal calum tal tal ca tal la
manner com ni nisu manir ni catu manir ni racu manir cumum sim com ca com la
place,
dest.
ou ni nisu loc ni catu loc ni racu loc uvum la ca la
dest.
(alt.)
a ou a nisu loc a catu loc a racu loc a uvum a la a ca a la
source d'ou di nisu loc di catu loc di racu loc d'uvum di la di ca di la
way pur ou pur nisu loc pur catu loc pur racu loc pur uvum pur la pur ca pur la
time caur mai tutur a racu ur laur aur laur
event a cal vic a nisu vic a catu vic a racu vic a calum vic a tal vic a vic ca a vic la
repetition a tut vic
reason pi nisu rati pi catu rati pi racu rati pi cium pi puc rati pi mrut rati
order di can di tan

The table conflates the interrogative and the relative usages, because they are always the same words in Tirkunan. This is the same as in the translations in that column.

The table also conflates the indefinite relative and plain versions, because Tirkunan uses the same words for them. This requires two translations, which are usually given and separated with a semicolon. The relative one contains a question word and is usually given first, e.g., 'whoever; someone'.

Indefinite words (pronouns and adverbs) are regularly formed by suffixing -um to the plain relative word, corresponding to appending the word ump 'ever', the indefinite adverb of time.[22] This is counted as derivation, because the result is one word with single stress, e.g., cium 'whoever; someone' and uvum 'whereever; somewhere'. Note that indefinite relative and plain versions need two translations, but are a single lexicon entry in Tirkunan.

Indefinite words are often used instead of a phrase from the 'some' column to replace a more complex prepositional phrase when there is no single generic word. Note that infinite word can also be used as relative word, but words from the 'some' column cannot.

Words expressing 'other' are regularly formed by compounding with the prefix alt, most frequently to indefinite words, although to can also be used with the plain relatives, e.g., alt-caur 'when else; at another time' or more often alt-caurum 'when ever else; at some other time'.[23]

Linked to the near complete loss of number (except in articles), Tirkunan usually does not distinguish between amount and count, hence 'number' and 'quantity' are on the same row. E.g. a countable noun tan vic is translated as plural 'so many times' while an uncountable tan ap is 'so much water'. These words can also be applied to adjectives and adverbs: tan gran 'so large' and tan suvin 'so often'.

Tirkunan usually does distinguish amount vs. count in the 'single' column, where all words except nisu imply counting. When used with an uncountable noun, portions are counted: racu ap 'some glas/bottle/portion/body of water' vs rapan ap 'some amount of water'. Also ce crivis 'which glas/bottle of beer' vs. cal crivis 'which kind/type/brand of beer'. nisu does not enforce countability: nisu ap 'no water' is perfectly fine for amounts of water and equivalent to nint ap or nul ap (which is somewhat rarer).

The 'reason' row has prepositional, analytical expressions for each column, and it can be used as a template for other noun based constructions when a single word or special term is missing.

In Tirkunan, adverbs or conjunctions cannot be noun phrases, but they always need a preposition, so complex correlatives derived from nouns always start with a preposition, most often a, ni, di.

The 'source' and 'destination' rows also show how prepositions are used. This can be applied to other prepositions, too, like dis 'starting from', afin 'up to', tra 'between, inside'.

There is no special set of words for handling two things or persons. E.g., 'both' is lur do. If this is to be expressed, then some version of di lur do is used, e.g., ce di lur do 'who of the two'.

Tirkunan can specialise questions by using nouns, e.g., cal cus 'what, which thing' vs. cal gen 'who, which person'. This works with question words and also with nisu, catu, racu, rapan, cal, tal, cul, ..., e.g., tal cus 'such a thing' or di cul uriga 'from this origin'.

There is a difference between ce 'who, what' vs. cal 'which' and correspondingly between cul 'this/that (one)' vs. tal 'such a': ce, cul are generic while cal, tal select from a specific group or imply some selection criterion. This is reflected in the translations 'who' vs. 'which'. Often, this distinction is blurry, especially if a word of selection follows, in which case usually cal, tal is preferred although ce, cul may be correct, too: di cal uriga 'from which origin' would strictly ask to select from some group of origins already mentioned or ask to give a specification of the kind of origin, while di ce uriga 'from what origin' would just generically ask for some origin. In practice, the former is used regularly in both semantic cases.

Related Small Words

Tirkunan has a few more words that do not fit the categories in the previous section, but should be mentioned here.

singra [ˈsɪŋɡrɐ] < singvlōs 'one each' Rei cu spus seu ni singra tron. The king and his wife each sit on a throne.
singra implies plural meaning, so singra tron is more than one throne, which may be confusing as the word is cognate to 'single'. But it derived from the Latin plural form which could already be used in the modern meaning, and the word was probably retained because Tirkunan needed some expressiveness for singular/plural distinctions in a few places when the plural endings disappeared. Compare Spanish 'sendos'.

Place and Time / Loc i Temp

Place and time, and sometimes notion, are often combined in one function word.

The distinction of motion/direction vs. location is typically not made in the function word itself, but is expressed or implied by context.

Any location or time noun can also be used to form complex prepositions, adverbs, etc., and the table shows destra, strur, cumra 'right, left, top' as examples. The general pattern is a generic prepostion a, ni, di, ... for a general categorisation plus the specific nouns/adjective. In the adjectival usage of a noun, it is possible to use, not to use, or replace by di the generic preposition.

Preposition Adverb Conjunction Adjective Noun Prefix
in, on, inside ni a ntren ntren ntren ni-
outside, out, except furi furi furi ci stren stren furi-
before, in front of avan avan avan ci di avan pri-
after, behind apui apui apui ci di apui pus-
above, over spra a nrat nrat nrat spra-
below, under su(v) a bas bas bas su(v)-
right a destra di a destra (a, di) destra destra destra-
left a strur di a strur (a, di) strur strur strur-
on top ni cumra di ni cumra (ni, di) cumra cumra

Derivation / Dirivati

Derivation in Tirkunan is a regular agglutination process. The following is an overview of some of the derivational suffixes.

noun > adj. -an cresi church > crisian ecclesial
adj. > emphatic -is gran large > granis huge
any > -ism -isma iman magnet > imanisma magnetism
adj. > abstraction -(i)tat pusabra posible > pusabritat posibility
verb > agent -(a)tur am to love > amatur lover
verb > patient -(a)t posi to put > pusit put
verb > ability -abra pos be able > pusabra possibly
verb > abstraction -(a)ti solu to solve > suluti solution
verb > event -i cumint to begin > cuminti beginning

The rules of elision and fusion are applied according to the lexicon.

Here, -ati drops the at after single -s (not in clusters).

Initial a of verb endings drops after -u and -i, e.g. solu+-at > sulut, oi+-at > uit, so the resulting participles look similar to the Latin ones, keeping the thematic vowel. This is not always the case, as pusabra shows, where the original consonantal stem becomes pos without -i.

Some endings are often used in city, country, mountain, river, etc. names:

noun > noun -is often found in cities Tracunis Tarragona

Note that final -a is dropped when adding a vocalic ending, but final -i or -u are not. However, two identical vowels are collapsed into one. Some endings drop the initial vowel after -i and -u.

miracra + -us > miracrus miraculous
istra + -an > istran insular
mpiri + -an > mpirian imperial
am + -at > amat loved
oi + -at > uit heard; listened
solu + -at > sulut solved
solu + -ati > suluti solution
solu + -atur > sulutur solver, solvent
selu + -ac > silvac wild, savage

Syntax / Spluri Fras

General Word Order

Tirkunan is mainly SVO except in special cases discussed below.

In contrast to other Romance languages, pronouns have no special role in ordering, i.e., object and oblique pronouns are put after the verb where also a noun would go: Mi am ti. 'I love you'.

Tirkunan is pro-drop for subjects, so the subject pronoun is often dropped. Object pronouns cannot usually be dropped except maybe in very short answers to questions or other special circumstances. A subject pronoun is more likely to be dropped on a reflexive verb, because then the object pronoun echos the subject.

Some verbs do not have a subject at all, so none surfaces: Mprui. 'It rains.'.

Oblique objects are placed after the direct objects: Mi da lebr' a ti. 'I give the book to you.'. For stylistic reasons or for stressing, they can be fronted: A ti mi da lebra! 'To you I gave the book!'. Oblique objects generally behave like adjuncts (see following section).

Auxilaries precede the verb: Mi ro manc 'I want to eat'.

Modifiers

Most modifiers follow the noun: prepositional constructions: mpiri ni Lustani, adjectives: mpiri gran, participles: pan mancat, relative clauses: mpiri ce e ni Lustani, possesives: pau mi, just like prepositional possessives: pau di mi.

In contrast to other Romance languages, adjectives cannot be fronted.

Adverbs to a verb can go at the beginning of the sentence, or after the verb: Aoi mi va a Lustani 'Today, I go to Lustany' or Mi va aoi a Lustani 'I go to Lustany today'.

Adverbs to adjectives and nouns precede the modified phrase: com cat 'like a cat', mrut gran 'very big'.

Relative Clauses

Relative clauses are introduced with the relative pronoun ce or with a prepositional phrase with that pronoun: di ce.

Relative clauses follow the modified noun phrase: Gen ce beu crivis e tiul mi. 'The person who drinks bear is my aunt/uncle'.

The relative clause itself uses a modified word order in that the reference pronoun ce is fronted and is not mentioned later in the sentence in the position it would normally appear. I.e., Tirkunan uses a gap construction instead of a resumptive pronoun. In the following sentence, the gap is marked with X (which is not pronounced): Gen ce te vei X e tiul mi 'The person you see X is my aunt/uncle'.

Relative clauses may be extrapositioned across adjuncts or even full clauses: Gen ni camra ce beu crivis e tiul mi 'The person in the room who drinks beer is my aunt/uncle', or in some cases, Gen e ni camra ce e tiul mi 'The person who is my aunt/uncle is in the room'. Note that for extrapositioned relative clauses, it is possible that another noun precedes ce to which ce does not refer: ...camra ce..., while the reference is gen. This leads to syntactic ambiguities which are resolved only by semantics. Such constructions are generally only used if the context and the stressing disambiguates the construction clearly.

Conjunctions

Conjunctions are used to join to sentences, either on the same level, or in main clause + subordinate clause relationship. Conjunctions start a conjoined clause: Mi ro vol sinu nu pos. 'I want to fly but can't.'.

Questions

Questions basically use the same word order as declarative sentences, possible starting with a question word, a pronoun or an adverb. Interrogative mood is marked in Tirkunan with the particle is. This particle starts yes-no questions, and is used after a question pronoun or adverb before the subject and verb.[24]

In colloquial Tirkunan, is is often contracted to s.

Is ti e la? Are you there?
S'ti e la? Are you there?
Ou is ustal prosm' e? Where is the next hostel?
Ou's ustal prosm' e? Where is the next hostel?

Something to Drink

Usually, to use verbs in noun context,Tirkunan requires verbs to be converted formally to nouns, usually be either appending the generic nominaliser -ar, or the passive suffix -at, or the agent suffix -atur, or the abstraction suffix -ati. For constructions like 'something to drink' or 'something to eat' or 'something to read', the preposition di plus the plain verb may be used, and is the default way of expressing this. In this case, di cannot be dropped. This way of using the plain verb after a preposition is generally possible and the default prepositional structure with verbs in Tirkunan.

Nominalisation of the verb is also possible, if the nominalisation is semantically sensible. With a noun, the di may then be dropped as usual in noun + di + noun constructions.[25]

For 'something to drink', there are several possible ways of expressing this, with cium di beu being the most frequent and the default. The same holds for expressions like 'goodbye', which is literally 'to see again', like in many languages:

Mi ro beu cium. I want to eat something.
Mi ro cium di beu. I want something to eat.
Mi ro cium di bivur. I want something to eat. Lit. 'to eating'
Mi ro cium bivur. I want something to eat. Lit. 'to eating'
Mi ro cium di bivut. I want something to eat. Lit. 'to be eaten'
Mi ro cium bivut. I want something to eat. Lit. 'to be eaten'
A rivei. Goodbye! Lit. 'to re-see'
A rivir. Goodbye! Lit. 'to re-seeing'

The (more) ... the (more) ...

The construction "the X the Y" is expressed in Tirkunan as pru X, pru Y. Since pru means more and usually a comperative follows, no additional word to indicate the comperative is used. The comperative is separated in Tirkunan so the normal word order can be used.

Pru ti prot, pru ti da. The more you carry the more you give.
Pru eli e vec, pru eli e greu. The older he is, the more serious he is.

The One Who ...

The construction "the one who X Y" can be expressed in two ways in Tirkunan: cul ce X, Y or cul Y ce X. The second form can be analysed as a relative clause extraposition, and again, it may cause semantic difficulties if Y ends in a noun phrase.

Cul ce ariva prim, sa cuciri. The one who arrives first shall win.
Cul ce ariva prim, sa cuciri ioc. The one who arrives first shall win the game.
Cul sa cuciri ce ariva prim. ?That one shall win who arrives first.
?Cul sa cuciri ioc ce ariva prim. ?That one shall win the game who arrives first.

Semantics / Spluri Sinicat

FIXME: This chapter is missing. It is all done intuitively like in typical Romance languages...


Whitespace / Spatiti

Generally, whitespace is inserted after . ! ? , ; :, but not before.

For whitespace around apostrophes, please refer to the elision rules.


One Letter Words / Parul Letra Sul

This section lists some words that reduce to only one letter in some phonological contexts.

a a
d di
i i
l li
n ni
p pi
s is
u u

Language Purity / Purtat Lim

The official Tirkunan language is supervised by the Istitut Puricar Lim (IPL), lit. 'Institute of Language Purifying'. The institute proposes neologisms for new concepts and often tries to find Latin based words. The institute is publically funded and performs independent research, but it has no official status wrt. to the language, i.e., it does not control the 'correctness' of Tirkunan. However, it is highly regarded and, therefore, influential.

Scolars with different backgrounds work for the institute to find good solutions for new words. The institute is often tasked to align Tirkunan with international nomenclature, e.g., the IUPAC chemitry nomenclature was adapted to Tirkunan by the IPL. Linguistically, Latin based neologisms are tried to be fitted with typical sound changes, without distorting the word too much, e.g., fripent < freqventem, sirciti < exercitivm (but not *striceti), or timpratur < temperatv̄ra.

The institute is often successful in establishing words rooted in Latin, and also in modernizing the language. E.g., the replacement of the larger number words like miluni 'million' by the SI prefix based migani was proposed by the Istitut Puricar, and accepted by scolars, education, and media, and is now the standard system of numbers.

The replacement of Greek based internationally recognised words by Latin based ones (e.g. spluri fras for sintasi 'syntax') is also a result of the influential character of the institute. The institute tries not to overdo the purification, but some think it sometimes does.


Names / Rapan Numra

Given Names

Aemilia Mili
Alexandra, Alexander Lisanra
Aloysius Alesi
Ambrosius Mrosi
Antonia, Antonius Ntoni
Arturius Ratul
Benedicta, Benedictus Bindit
Caesar Cestra
Caietana, Caietanus Caitan
Cecilia Ciceli
Christina Cristin
Christus Crist
Claudia, Claudius Croi
Clemens Criment
Dulcia Druci
Felix Filic
Flora Flur
Francisca, Franciscus Francisc
Gaia, Gaius Gai
Hadriana, Hadrianus Dran
Helena Ren
Henrik Nric
Hieronyma, Hieronymus Irom
Isabella Savel
John Iuan
Jake Iacou
Jesus Isu
Julia, Julius Iuli
Judia Iui
Clara Clar
Laura Lur
Marcus Mrac
Marcella, Marcellus Mracel
Maria, Marius Mari
Martina, Martinus Mratin
Maximilianus Masmilan
Michaela, Michael Micil
Paula, Paulus Pul
Philippa, Philippus Filip
Richarda, Richardus Ricalda
Sibylla Sivil
Stephana, Stephanus Stefra
Suetonius Svitoni
Theophila, Theophilus Tiufil
Tulia, Tulius Toli
Victoria, Victorius Vitori
Vincentius Vincenti
Walter Balteri
Werhard Biraldi
Wernhard Brinaldi

Surnames

Surnames in Tirkunan are often combinations of a verb and an object or adject.

Often the fused proper noun will show additional elision or fusion or morpheme/word variants, like Stratinlac from strat+ni+lac. The fused proper noun will bear only one stress at the end (last or penultimate syllabel), resulting in all vowels before that to collapse to a i u as for any unstressed syllables, like Numampan from nu+manc+pan.

Other typical surname formations derive from nouns using -us to express 'the one who is like...'.

Further, -ar to express 'the one who believes in/practices/works with/deals with/likes...'. Apart from names, this ending is often used for the dealer of the suffixed thing. Accordingly, any profession or generic agent may be a surname, too. These often end in the same -ar, or in the simple agent ending -atur. These verb based forms carrying a nominaliser cannot incorporate any object or adject -- only the non-suffixed verbs can do that.

Adjectives may be used as is for surnames. Also for adjectives, a -us ending, which may seem redundant, is frequent.

Tirkunan surnames are often very colourful, even borderline ridiculous to speakers of other languages.

Ritrunatur returner
Diutur who had to
Sucricatur who searched alone
Nascrutatur who does not listen
Umimpreti who raised the price
Sulutot solve-everything
Numampan doesn't eat bread
Udinint who heard nothing
Saltinlac who jumped into the lake
Nucuntan not telling
Iacatinlac thrown into the lake
Pridat lost
Nipanus like there is no bread
Focus like fire
Miracus like an illusion
Ambilus like an eel
Cavalus like a horse
Cavalinus like a small horse
Centanus like a hundred years old
Racunus like someone
Marelus yellowish
Statar liking the summer
Frumacar liking/dealing with yoghurt
Vecrivisar liking/dealing with old beer
Casiar cheese monger
Baltur dancer

Chemistry / Cimi

This section gives a very brief overview how the IUPAC naming of chemical compounds was adapted into Tirkunan.

Anion and anionic ligand names are derived from atom names by adding an ending in the normal way done in Tirkunan morphology, considering that all atom names that end in a vowel drop that vowel. Possible endings are -ida, -it, and -at.[26]

idru [ˈidrʊ] + -ida hydrogen + ide idrida [ɪˈdridɐ] hydride
osi [ˈosɪ] + -ida oxygen + ide usida [ʊˈsidɐ] oxide
nitru [ˈnitrʊ] + -it nitrogen + ite nitrit [nɪˈtrɪt] nitrite
sulf [sʊlf] + -at sulphur + ate sulfat [sʊlˈfat] sulphate
bor [bɔr] + -at boron + ate burat [bʊˈrat] borate

Special molecule names are derived in the same way, possibly with more endings and using compounding. Note that Tirkunan atom names are usually not replaced by into Latin names, but sometimes abbreviated.

citrat [kɪˈtrat] citrate
idrusida [ɪdrʊˈsidɐ] hydroxide
crabusil [krɐbʊˈsɪl] carboxyl

In compounds, the derived ion name is used before the plain ion, usually without an optional di.

citrat di calci [kɪˈtrat̚ di ˈkalkɪ] calcium citrate
citrat calci [kɪˈtrat ˈkalkɪ] calcium citrate
usida cobra [ʊˈsidɐ ˈkobrɐ] copper oxide
idrusida putasi [ɪdrʊˈsidɐ pʊˈtasɪ] potassium hydroxide
sulfat sodi niapus [sʊlˈfat ˈsodɪ njɐˈpʊs] anhydrous sodium sulphate
clurida fer(ⅠⅠⅠ) [tre] [klʊˈridɐ fɛr tre] iron(ⅠⅠⅠ) cloride

Traditional names also use the normal head-first order in naming. Just like normally in Tirkunan, there is no big difference between noun and adjective in formatives of lexicalised compound phrases, so traditional chemical names usually use the base noun as modifier (e.g., cetra 'citrus') instead of a derived adjective (e.g., citriu 'citric').

acit sulf [ɐˈkɪt sʊlf] sulphuric acid
acit cetra [ɐˈkɪt ˈketrɐ] citric acid

Texts / Test

Pater Noster

Pau No [pa͡ʊ̯ no] Our Father
Pau no, ce e ni cel, [pa͡ʊ̯ no ke e ni kɛl] Our father, who is in heaven.
Numra ti sa bindit. [ˈnʊmbrɐ ti sa bɪnˈdɪt] Your name be hallowed.
Reni ti sa veni. [ˈrenɪ ti sa ˈvenɪ] Your kingdom come.
Roi ti sa fit, [ro͡ɪ̯ ti sa fɪt] Your will shall be done.
Com ni cel sim ni ter. [kɔm ni kɛl sɪm ni tɛr] How in heaven so on earth.
Va dun aoi a no pan pi catu dirun. [va dʊ nɐˈo͡ɪ̯ a no pam pi ˈkatʊ dɪˈrʊn] Give us today our bread for each day.
I va pidun a no divut no, [i va pɪˈdʊ na no dɪˈvʊt no] And forgive us our debts.
Tan com no pidun eli a diutur no. [taŋ kɔm no pɪˈdʊ ˈnelɪ a djʊˈtʊr no] Like we forgive them of our debtors.
I va nu nduc no ni tintati, [i va nun dʊk no ni tɪnˈtatɪ] And do not lead us into temptation.
Sinu va libra no di mal. [ˈsinʊ va ˈlibrɐ no di mal] But liberate us from evil.
Ca di ti e reni i pot i glori, [ka di ti e ˈrenɪ i pɔ ti ˈɡlorɪ] As yours is the kingdom, the power, the glory.
Ni trinitat, [ni trɪnɪˈtat] In eternity.
Amin. [ɐˈmɪn] Amen.

Phrases

Mi am ti. [mi am ti] I love you.
No sa va! [no sa va] Let's go!
Matin bon! [mɐˈtɪm bɔn] Good morning!
Dirun bon! [dɪˈrʊm bɔn] Good afternoon!
Siran bon! [sɪˈram bɔn] Good evening!
Not bon! [nɔt bɔn] Good night!
Bon vinit! [bɔɱ vɪˈnɪt] Welcome!
Salut! [sɐˈlʊt] Hello!
Aur! [ɐˈʊr] Bye, bye!
Sa rest nigatiu! [sa rɛst nɪɡɐˈti͡ʊ̯] Stay negative!
A rivei! [a rɪˈve͡ɪ̯] Good bye!
A pru trar! [a pru trar] See you later!
..., pi pracur. [ pi prɐˈkʊr] ... , please.
..., pi faur. [ pi fɐˈʊr] ... , please.
Mrut uligat! [m̩brʊ tʊlɪˈɡat] Thank you!
Nu pi cul! [nu pi kʊl] Don't mention it!
Sa nur mi. [sa nʊr mi] Please ignore me.
Apui mi dilui! [ɐˈpu͡ɪ̯ mi dɪˈlu͡ɪ̯] After me the deluge!
Pi pracur, vo sa ro acepu cuduluti sintit mi. [pi prɐˈkʊr vo sa ro ɐˈkepʊ kʊdʊˈlutɪ sɪnˈtɪt mi] Please accept my sincere condolences.
Mi cuit, pi ca mi e. [mi kʊˈɪt pi ka mi e] Cogito ergo sum. / I think, therefore I am.
Cram mi Bond. [kram mi bɔnd] My name is Bond.
Numra mi e Bond. [ˈnʊmbrɐ mi e bɔnd] My name is Bond.
Rei e murit. Rei sa viu long! [re͡ɪ̯ e mʊˈrɪt re͡ɪ̯ sa vi͡ʊ̯ lɔŋ] The king/queen is dead. Long live the king/queen!
Is pos prisent a vo spus mi Gai? [ɪs pɔs prɪˈsɛn ta vos pʊs mi ɡa͡ɪ̯] May I introduce you to my wife/husband Gaia/Gaius?
Cul e amat mi Gai! [kʊ le ɐˈmat mi ɡa͡ɪ̯] This is my boyfriend/girlfriend Gaia/Gaius!
Ou is ciditoi prosm' e? [o͡ʊ̯ ɪs kɪdɪˈto͡ɪ̯ prɔs me] Where is the next toilet?
Sa ro cium di manc. [sa ro kjʊm di maŋk] I would like something to eat.
Crugutur crutic cul crucutec cu crutel. [krʊɡʊˈtʊr krʊˈtɪk̚ kʊl krʊkʊˈtɛk̚ ku krʊˈtɛl] The runner cuts that courgette with a knife. {tongue twister}

The Northwind and the Sun

Vent Bural i Sulic [vɛnt bʊˈra li sʊˈlɪk] Northwind and Sun
Vent bural i sulic discus caurum spra ce di lur do e pru frot, caur ni cul mument, viacatur pas mvrutat ni mantil crar. [vɛnt bʊˈra li sʊˈlɪk dɪsˈkʊs ka͡ʊ̯ˈrʊm spra ke di lʊr do e pru frɔt kɐˈʊr ni kʊl mʊˈmɛnt vjɐkɐˈtʊr pas ɱ̩vrʊˈtat ni mɐnˈtɪl krar] Northwind and sun were discussing somewhen about who of the two is stronger, when in that moment, a traveller passed by wrapped in a warm coat.
Cuveni ci cul eri cusidrat pru frot ce ariva fi viacatur trai mantil. [kʊˈvenɪ ki kʊ ˈlerɪ kʊsɪˈdrat pru frɔt ke ɐˈrivɐ fi vjɐkɐˈtʊr tra͡ɪ̯ mɐnˈtɪl] They agreed that that one will be considered the one stronger who manages to make the traveller take off the coat.
Vent bural cumint sofla cu tut pot, sinu pru eli sofla, pru viacatur tenu friu i stric se ni mantil, i ni fin, vent bural deu riseni. [vɛnt bʊˈral kʊˈmɪnt ˈsoflɐ ku tʊt pɔt ˈsinʊ pru ˈelɪ ˈsoflɐ pru vjɐkɐˈtʊr ˈtenʊ fri͡ʊ̯ is trɪk se ni mɐnˈtɪl i ni fɪn vɛnt bʊˈral de͡ʊ̯ rɪˈsenɪ] The northwind began to blow with all strength, but the more he blew, the more the traveller felt cold and nuzzled into the coat, and in the end, the northwind had to give up.
Laur, sulic cumint bril ni cel, i prunt, viacatur repu crar i trai mantil. [lɐˈʊr sʊˈlɪk̚ kʊˈmɪnt brɪl ni kɛl i prʊnt vjɐkɐˈtʊr ˈrepʊ kra ri tra͡ɪ̯ mɐnˈtɪl] Then, the sun began to shine in the sky, and immediately, the traveller got warm and took off the coat.
Aur, vent bural deu ricunus supriltat sulic. [ɐˈʊr vɛnt bʊˈral de͡ʊ̯ rɪkʊˈnʊs sʊprɪlˈtat sʊˈlɪk] Now, the northwind had to recognise the superiority of the sun.

Iuan 1:1

Iuan [jʊˈan] John
Ni princepi fu parul, i parul fu cu Deu, i parul fu Deu. [ni prɪŋˈkepɪ fu pɐˈrʊl i pɐˈrʊl fu ku de͡ʊ̯ i pɐˈrʊl fu de͡ʊ̯] In the beginning was the word, and the word was with God, and the word was God.
Eli fu, ni princepi, cu Deu. [ˈelɪ fu ni prɪŋˈkepɪ ku de͡ʊ̯] It was, in the beginning, with God.
Tut e fit pur eli, i sint' eli, nint e fit ce e fit. [tʊ te fɪt pʊ ˈrelɪ i sɪn ˈtelɪ nɪn te fɪt ke e fɪt] All is made by him, and without him, nothing is made that is made.
Vit fu n'eli, i vit fu luc d'uman. [vɪt fu ˈnelɪ i vɪt fu lʊk dʊˈman] Life was in him, and life was the light of humans.
Luc bril ni trebla, i trebla nu ntregu upur cuciri eli. [lʊk brɪl ni ˈtreblɐ i ˈtreblɐ nun ˈtreɡʊ ʊˈpʊr kʊˈkirɪ ˈelɪ] Light shone in the darkness, and the darkness did not understand or defeat it.
Omra fu mandat di Deu, i numra se fu Iuan. [ˈɔmbrɐ fu mɐnˈdat̚ di de͡ʊ̯ i ˈnʊmbrɐ se fu jʊˈan] A man was sent by God, and his name was John.
...

Genesis

Gines [ɡɪˈnɛs] Genesis
Ni princepi, Deu fi cel i ter. [ni prɪŋˈkepɪ de͡ʊ̯ fi kɛ li tɛr] In the beginning, God made heaven and earth.
Ter fu vot i sinti frum, i trebla fu spra faci d'avis i sprit Deu mou spra ap. [tɛr fu vɔ ti ˈsɪntɪ frʊm i ˈtreblɐ fus pra ˈfakɪ dɐˈvɪ sis prɪt̚ de͡ʊ̯ mo͡ʊ̯ spra ap] The earth was empty and without shape, and darkness was above the surface of the abyss, and the spirit of God moved above the water.
Deu di: «luc sa fit»! I luc fu fit. [de͡ʊ̯ di lʊk sa fɪt i lʊk fu fɪt] God said: Let light be made! And light was made.
Deu vei ci luc fu bon i sipar luc di trebla. [de͡ʊ̯ ve͡ɪ̯ ki lʊk fu bɔ ni sɪˈpar lʊk di ˈtreblɐ] God saw that the light was good and he separated light from darkness.
Deu cram luc «dirun» i trebla «not». [de͡ʊ̯ kram blʊk dɪˈrʊ ni ˈtreblɐ nɔt] God called the light `day' and the darkness `night'.
I fu siran i fu matin: dirun un. [i fu sɪˈra ni fu mɐˈtɪn dɪˈrʊ nʊn] And it was evening and it was morning: day one.
...

Golden Rule

Regla d'Or [ˈreɡlɐ dɔr] Golden Rule
Ce nu ro fit a ti, nu fi a racu! [ke nu ro fɪ ta ti nu fi a ˈrakʊ] What you don't want done to yourself, don't do to anyone.

Babel

Babil [bɐˈbɪl] Babel
N'un temp, tut ter tenu lim sul i parul pal. [nʊn tɛmp tʊt̚ tɛr ˈtenʊ lɪm sʊ li pɐˈrʊl pal] Once upon a time, all earth had a single language and the same word.

Hovercraft of Eels

Nau cusin ar mi e prin d'ambil. [na͡ʊ̯ kʊˈsɪ nar mi e prɪn dɐmˈbɪl] My hovercraft is full of eels.

Diary

Prandi siran i ser cric [ˈprandɪ sɪˈra ni sɛr krɪk] Dinner and Circular Saw
Dirun bon! [dɪˈrʊm bɔn] Good Afternoon!
Aoi siran Oda i mi au mancat past fratat di fung cu pestu i singra burata. [ɐˈo͡ɪ̯ sɪˈra ˈnodɐ i mi a͡ʊ̯ mɐŋˈkat past frɐˈtat̚ di fʊŋ ku ˈpɛstʊ i ˈsɪŋɡrɐ bʊˈratɐ] This evening, Uta and I ate pasta filled with mushrooms with pesto and a burrata each.
Si, puc mrut, sinu past fu frisc di mricat, pestu casifit fu ni mfriutur, i burata ni cumr' e tutur bon. [si pʊk m̩brʊt ˈsinʊ past fu frɪsk dim brɪˈkat ˈpɛstʊ kɐsɪˈfɪt fu niɱ frjʊˈtʊr i bʊˈratɐ ni kʊmb re tʊˈtʊr bɔn] Yes, a bit much, but the pasta was fresh from the market, home-made pesto was in the fridge, and burrata on top is always good.
Ni rapan dirun pasat mi trival a ser cric tabra mi. [ni rɐˈpan dɪˈrʊm pɐˈsat mi trɪˈva la sɛr krɪk ˈtabrɐ mi] During the past few days, I have been working on my table saw.
Tabr' e pres finit i se pos opra ser. [tab re prɛs fɪˈnɪ ti se pɔ ˈsoprɐ sɛr] The table is almost done, and you can operate the saw.
Aoi mi au fit peu p'eli. [ɐˈo͡ɪ̯ mi a͡ʊ̯ fɪt pe͡ʊ̯ ˈpelɪ] Today, I made feet for it.
Vo sa rest nigatiu! [vo sa rɛst nɪɡɐˈti͡ʊ̯] Stay negative!
A pru trar, Nric [a pru trar n̩drɪk] See you later, Henrik

Christmas Card Exchange 2009

The foreside reads 'Hjalri Nátli eð þælkt nó önn', which is Þrjótrunn, meaning 'Merry Christmas and a happy new year'. Our family is on holiday in Þrjótur, sending a card back to their friends at home in Tarragona, Lusitania.

Modern Version

Salut caris ... [sɐˈlʊt kɐˈrɪs] Hello dear ...
Natal Filic i an nou pruspla di nort friu, [nɐˈtal fɪˈlɪ ki an no͡ʊ̯ ˈprʊsplɐ di nɔrt fri͡ʊ̯] Merry Christmas and a happy new year from the cold north,
di Friulter, u no cilebra Natal. Ca nivic [di frjʊlˈtɛr u no kɪˈlebrɐ nɐˈtal ka nɪˈvɪk] from Iceland, where we celebrate Christmas. Here, it snows
custant i tut ciutat e prin d'Arit Sulic [kʊsˈtan ti tʊt kjʊˈta te prɪn dɐˈrɪt sʊˈlɪk] constantly and the whole city is full of Sun-Rams
i di mfant cu froc. Afin aur, pi frutun, vei [i diɱ fant ku frɔk ɐˈfɪ nɐˈʊr pi frʊˈtʊn ve͡ɪ̯] and of children with scissors. Up to now, fortunately, we saw
nisu lesi. Pi cilibrati se manc [ˈnisʊ ˈlesɪ pi kɪlɪˈbratɪ se maŋk] no injury. For the celebration, people eat
pisc apistur. [pɪs kɐpɪsˈtʊr] stinking fish.
A pru trar, [a pru trar] See you later,
Oda i Nric [ˈodɐ in drɪk] Uta and Henrik

Original Version

The language has changed since 2009. The original version was as follows:
Salu kar ... [ˈsalʊ kar]
Natal Filik id an nova pruspla di nort frida, [nɐˈtal fɪˈlɪ kɪ dan ˈnovɐ ˈprʊsplɐ di nɔrt ˈfridɐ]
di Friglater, ova nos kilebra Natal. Ka nivik [di frɪɡlɐˈtɛr ˈovɐ nɔs kɪˈlebrɐ nɐˈtal ka nɪˈvɪk]
kustantament i tot kiutat es prin d'Aret Sular [kʊstɐntɐˈmɛn ti tɔt kjʊˈta tɛs prɪn dɐˈrɛt sʊˈlar]
i di nfant ku frok. Fin akur, pi frutun, vis [i diɱ fant ku frɔk fɪ nɐˈkʊr pi frʊˈtʊn vɪs]
nisu' lisiun. Pi kilibratiun se manga pisk [nɪˈsu lɪsˈjʊn pi kɪlɪbrɐtˈjʊn se ˈmaŋɡɐ pɪsk]
apistan. [ɐpɪsˈtan]
A pru trada, [a pru ˈtradɐ]
Oda id Indrik [ˈodɐ ɪ dɪnˈdrɪk]

Hjalri Nátli! There are some minor variations to the text sometimes -- I wrote it by hand and sometimes changed a few words slightly (e.g. nu vis racu' lisiun ('we did not see any injury') instead of vis nisu' lisiun ('we saw no injury')).

When addressing a group of people (e.g., a family), I used Salu lis ..., where lis is the definite article in plural, which is used for vocatives (as in French usage).


Exercises / Sirciti

'With' Polysemy

He was fighting with his brother. Eli lut cu griman se. [ˈelɪ lʊt ku ɡrɪˈman se]
Eli cubatu griman se. [ˈelɪ kʊˈbatʊ ɡrɪˈman se]
He came with his friends. Eli veni cun amic se. [ˈelɪ ˈvenɪ kʊ nɐˈmɪk se]
The cowboy bought the horse (along) with the saddle. Vacar compra caval cu sel. [vɐˈkar ˈkɔmprɐ kɐˈval ku sɛl]
Vacar compra caval i sel. [vɐˈkar ˈkɔmprɐ kɐˈva li sɛl]
Vacar compra caval iunt cu sel. [vɐˈkar ˈkɔmprɐ kɐˈval jʊnt ku sɛl]
We are with you in this task. No sutenu ti ni cul divur. [no sʊˈtenʊ ti ni kʊl dɪˈvʊr]
No sutenu vo ni cul divur. [no sʊˈtenʊ vo ni kʊl dɪˈvʊr]
Cut that with a knife. Va crutic cul cu crutel. [va krʊˈtɪk̚ kʊl ku krʊˈtɛl]
Va tali cul cu crutel. [va ˈtalɪ kʊl ku krʊˈtɛl]
My uncle is the man with the beard. Tiul mi e omra cu brau. [tjʊl mi e ˈɔmbrɐ ku bra͡ʊ̯]
I will leave this letter with the guard. Mi las cul letr' a vigratur. [mi las kʊl lɛt ra vɪɡrɐˈtʊr]
With all its strength the horse could not pull the wagon. Caval nu pos trai carec mitis cu tut pot se. [kɐˈval nu pɔs tra͡ɪ̯ kɐˈrɛk mɪˈtɪs ku tʊt pɔt se]
Let's get up tomorrow morning with the sun. Sa leva no crai matin cu sulic. [sa ˈlevɐ no kra͡ɪ̯ mɐˈtɪŋ ku sʊˈlɪk]
The women trembled with fear when they saw the bear. Fimra tremla di paur caur vei us. [ˈfɪmbrɐ ˈtrɛmblɐ di pɐˈʊr kɐˈʊr ve͡ɪ̯ ʊs]
The girl had to be satisfied with the last prize. Nicol deu e satisfit cu premi rutis. [nɪˈkɔl de͡ʊ̯ e sɐtɪsˈfɪt ku ˈpremɪ rʊˈtɪs]
Serve the Lord with gladness. Va strebi Sinur cu pracur. [vas ˈtrebɪ sɪˈnʊr ku prɐˈkʊr]

Vocabulary:

a amic brau carec caur caval compra crai crutel crutic cu cubatu cul cun deu di divur e eli fimra griman i iunt las letr leva lut matin mi mitis ni nicol no nu omra paur pos pot pracur premi rutis sa satisfit se sel sinur strebi sulic sutenu tali ti tiul trai tremla tut us va vacar vei veni vigratur vo

Copula Polysemy

1. That man is my father. Cul omr' e pau mi. [kʊ lɔmb re pa͡ʊ̯ mi]
2. That man is my friend. Cul omr' e amic mi. [kʊ lɔmb re ɐˈmɪk mi]
7. In the autumn the leaves turn red and brown. N'utum, foli diveni robi i maron. [nʊˈtʊm ˈfolɪ dɪˈvenɪ ˈrobɪ i mɐˈrɔn]
10. This egg didn't smell this bad yesterday. Cul ou nu flar tan mal air. [kʊ lo͡ʊ̯ nu flar tam ma lɐˈɪr]
16. Two plus two equals four. Do pru do e pal a patru. [do pru do e pa la ˈpatrʊ]
17 His statement proved incorrect. Diclarati eli risult nicuricat. [dɪklɐˈratɪ ˈelɪ rɪˈsʊlt nɪkʊrɪˈkat]
19. The hare remained still and the fox didn't see it. Lepra rest paciu i rup nu vei eli. [ˈleprɐ rɛst pɐˈki͡ʊ̯ i rʊp nu ve͡ɪ̯ ˈelɪ]
20. We lit a fire and stayed warm. No acinra foc i rest crar. [no ɐˈkɪndrɐ fɔ ki rɛst krar]

Vocabulary:

a acinra air amic crar cul diclarati diveni do e eli flar foc foli i lepra mal maron mi n nicuricat no nu omr ou paciu pal patru pau pru rest risult robi rup tan utum vei


Course / Curs

Ce is mi e?

Croi: Salut Flur, com is cus e? [kro͡ɪ̯ sɐˈlʊt flʊr kɔ mɪs kʊ se]
Flur: E bon, uligat. I cus ti? [flʊr e bɔn ʊlɪˈɡat i kʊs ti]
Croi: Ncui bon. O, salut Iuli! Pracu ci vei ti! Ou is ti va? [kro͡ɪ̯ ŋ̩ku͡ɪ̯ bɔn o sɐˈlʊt ˈjulɪ ˈprakʊ ki ve͡ɪ̯ ti o͡ʊ̯ ɪs ti va]
Iuli: Salut Croi! Mi va a Tracunis. I ti? [ˈjulɪ sɐˈlʊt kro͡ɪ̯ mi va a trɐkʊˈnɪs i ti]
Croi: Mi va ncui a Tracunis. [kro͡ɪ̯ mi vaŋ ku͡ɪ̯ a trɐkʊˈnɪs]
Iuli: Is cul e amic ti? [ˈjulɪ ɪs kʊ le ɐˈmɪk ti]
Croi: Si, no studi iunt a univirsitat. [kro͡ɪ̯ si nos ˈtudɪ jʊn ta ʊnɪvɪrsɪˈtat]
Iuli: Pracur, mi e Iuli. I com is cram ti? [ˈjulɪ prɐˈkʊr mi e ˈjulɪ i kɔ mɪs kram ti]
Flur: Pracur, cram mi Flur. D'ou is ti e? [flʊr prɐˈkʊr kram mi flʊr do͡ʊ̯ ɪs ti e]
Iuli: E di Cair, i ti? [ˈjulɪ e di kɐˈɪr i ti]
Flur: E di Atin sinu studi a Tracunis. I ce is ti fi? [flʊr e di ɐˈtɪn ˈsinʊs ˈtudɪ a trɐkʊˈnɪs i ke ɪs ti fi]
Iuli: Mi e ncui studitur. Can an is ti tenu? [ˈjulɪ mi eŋ ku͡ɪ̯ stʊdɪˈtʊr ka na nɪs ti ˈtenʊ]
Flur: 22 [vinti do]. I mitis? [flʊr ˈvɪntɪ do i mɪˈtɪs]
Iuli: Mi tenu 23 [vinti tre]. [ˈjulɪ mi ˈtenʊ ˈvɪntɪ tre]

Normal sentences use subject-verb-object (SVO) word order.

A very important verb is e 'to be, is, am, are', the existential copula.

Subject pronouns may be dropped, if they are obvious from context.

Questions use the same word order as normal sentences, with the question marker is placed after the question word or phrase, or at the beginning for yes-no questions. Elliptic questions without a verb can be posed without is.

New Vocabulary:

a amic an Atin bon Cair can ce ci com cram Croi cul cus d di do e fi Flur i is Iuli iunt mi mitis ncui no o ou pracu pracur salut si sinu studi studitur tenu ti Tracunis tre uligat univirsitat va vei vinti

Ce is vo ro manc?

Croi: Mi tenu famra. Flur, no sa manc ni risturan! [kro͡ɪ̯ mi ˈtenʊ ˈfambrɐ flʊr no sa maŋk ni rɪstʊˈran]
Flur: Ur e ses, i mi tenu ncui famra. Cuvinit! [flʊr ʊ re sɛs i mi ˈtenʊŋ ku͡ɪ̯ ˈfambrɐ kʊvɪˈnɪt]
A rapan minut pru trar, Croi i Flur seu ni risturan. [a rɐˈpam mɪˈnʊt pru trar kro͡ɪ̯ i flʊr se͡ʊ̯ ni rɪstʊˈran ]
Camrar: Siran bon i bon vinit acas! [kɐmˈbrar sɪˈram bɔ ni bɔɱ vɪˈnɪ tɐˈkas]
Croi i Flur: Siran bon! [kro͡ɪ̯ i flʊr sɪˈram bɔn]
Camrar: Ce is vo ro manc? [kɐmˈbrar ke ɪs vo ro maŋk]
Croi: Prin nsalat pumber pi pracur. [kro͡ɪ̯ prɪn n̩sɐˈlat pʊmˈbɛr pi prɐˈkʊr]
Camrar: Mrut bon, i no? Ncui nsalat? [kɐmˈbrar m̩brʊt bɔn i no ŋ̩ku͡ɪ̯ n̩sɐˈlat]
Flur: Nu, prin alt-cium. Mi sa ro catric proc cu fung, pi pracur. [flʊr nu prɪ nalt kjʊm mi sa ro kɐˈtrɪk prɔk̚ ku fʊŋ pi prɐˈkʊr]
Camrar: Rigur bon! Is sa ro ncur cium di beu? [kɐmˈbrar rɪˈɡʊr bɔn ɪs sa roŋ kʊr kjʊm di be͡ʊ̯]
Croi: Si, prin crivis, pi pracur. [kro͡ɪ̯ si prɪŋ krɪˈvɪs pi prɐˈkʊr]
Flur: Pi mi vin robi, pi pracur. [flʊr pi mi vɪn ˈdrobɪ pi prɐˈkʊr]
Camrar: Mrut uligat, eli eri prunt ca. [kɐmˈbrar m̩brʊ tʊlɪˈɡat ˈelɪ ˈerɪ prʊnt ka]
Croi i Flur manc i beu. [kro͡ɪ̯ i flʊr maŋ ki be͡ʊ̯ ]
Flur: Camrar, conti, pi pracur. [flʊr kɐmˈbrar ˈkɔntɪ pi prɐˈkʊr]
Camrar: E iunt 20 € [vinti Iuru]. [kɐmˈbrar e jʊnt ˈvɪntɪ ˈjurʊ]
Flur: Fu dilicius! Sa tenu 22 [vinti do]. [flʊr fu dɪlɪkˈjʊs sa ˈtenʊ ˈvɪntɪ do]
Camrar: Mrut uligat. A rivei! [kɐmˈbrar m̩brʊ tʊlɪˈɡat a rɪˈve͡ɪ̯]
Croi i Flur: A rivei! [kro͡ɪ̯ i flʊr a rɪˈve͡ɪ̯]

'Please!', 'Thank you', 'Here you are!'

'Good evening!', 'Welcome!', 'Good bye!'

New Vocabulary:

acas alt-cium beu ca camrar catric cium conti crivis cu cuvinit dilicius eli eri famra fu fung iuru manc minut mrut ncur ni nsalat nu pi prin proc pru prunt pumber rapan rigur risturan rivei ro robi sa ses seu siran trar ur vin vinit vo


Sound Changes / Cambir Son

This section lists the key aspects of the Tirkunan sound shifts that derived words from Vulgar Latin into Tirkunan.

Content


Footnotes

 1 
The distinction is not specific to Tirkunan. Other Romance languages have often developped a different preposition for this use, e.g., da in Italian.
 2 
Obviously from Latin Lv̄sitānia, which was in the area of today's Portugal in Roman times. Some things seem to have gone differently, since 'Tarragona' is not in Portugal here, but in Spain, in Catalonia. Also, obviously neither 'Portugal' nor 'Spain' is named after the Latin Lv̄sitānia, but 'Lustani' seems to be a country there. And also, the city seems to be larger than here, provided that 'Tirkunis' is really our 'Tarragona', i.e. Tarracō in Roman times.
 3 
Other Romance languages consistently spell these out, e.g. Spanish ombre and Catalan cendra, where the plosive also emerged epenthetically between nasal and r.
 4 
This is like in Latin, e.g. rē + dare becomes reddere, stressed on the antepenult (this verb also completely changes conjugation), and similarly with ab + ferre, which becomes avfere also stressed on the antepenult. This is unlike Italian, which has ri + dare as ridare with the 3.sg. form ridà, stressed on the last syllable, as Italian does not move stress to the prefix.
 5 
This is like in Latin: once a prefixed stem changes, it stays that way, e.g., in reddere, the a of the original stem of dare does not reemerge in conjugated forms.
 6 
Like in Romanian: spărgător de nuci 'nutcracker'.
 7 
The strong simplifications of pronouns and case system of Tirkunan can be observed in other Romance languages, too. E.g. the collapse of cases in pronouns into the accusative in ego, tv can be found also in Ligurian, Piemontese, Venetian, and Lombard, which have 'mi, ti', and to a lesser degree and into the nominative in Catalan, which has 'jo, tu' (and also 'mi' in some contexts); accidentally, Ligurian singular pronouns are quite similar identical to Tirkunan: 'mi, ti, lê' vs. 'mi, ti, eli'.
 8 
Compare Portuguese: 'dêle, dela, dêles', dialectal Spanish: 'de mi, de ellos', Galician: 'de noso', Valencian Catalan: 'de nosaltres, de vosaltres'.
 9 
This preference is in contrast to Romanian: Spărgătorul meu de nuci este rupt. 'My nutcracker is broken.' where spărgător de nuci is 'nutcracker'.
 10 
Like in Romanian: mai bună 'best'.
 11 
Like in Romanian nemuritor 'immortal', and sometimes Portuguese: assustador 'frightening'
 12 
Like in Romanian or Sardinian, and similar to many special circumstances in other Romance languages.
 13 
Similar to Romanian, which uses 1,..,9+sprezece, e.g., cincisprezece '15' lit. 'five over ten'.
 14 
Romanian is even more regular, using 2,...9+zeci, e.g. trezeci '30' lit. 'three tens'.
 15 
Like in Sardinian.
 16 
Cognate to Italian: mo' 'now'.
 17 
Like Rumansch: vegn a offrir 'he will offer'.
 18 
Cognate to French: est-ce que.
 19 
Compare Italian 'acquistare', 'conquistare', 'diventare', 'voltare', and Catalan 'gausar', French 'oser', Portuguese 'ousar', Spanish 'osar', Italian: 'osare' < avdēre, avsvm. If Tirkunan has creole-like traces, English verbs might also be relevant for comparison as many are loaned from the Latin supine stem: 'discuss', 'prevent'.
 20 
Compare Romance here: Qvatere has not survived, but discvtere has survived in Italian 'discùtere' and Spanish 'discutir'
 21 
Like Catalan uses -g- in gosar
 22 
Like Italian '-unque', and similarly to Italian '-siasi', Romanian '-va', Spanish '-qier(a)', Portuguese '-quer', Sardinian '-sisiat, -casiat'.
 23 
Like in Romanian altceva, and also like Italian altrove.
 24 
Just like French est-ce que.
 25 
Most other Romance language use the infinitive, corresponding to -ar. Romanian also allows the passive participle in some contexts, corresponding to -at: ceva de băut.
 26 
This is different from Romance languages here, which use -uro (or -eto) or similar instead of -ide.

Index

September 17th, 2022
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