Ring N/X: 3/11: Inagalasi

Eric W.
[ Relay 11 | Ring E | Ring N/X | Conlangs | Participants ]
[ Inagalasi | Smooth English | Interlinear | Grammar | Vocabulary ]

<< Thalassan Calénnawn >>

Inagalasi

Nakofu Uhekisudibaredalo

Putinusen bitilo ogofudahogilo ogosalalo aladefi selatu ogoputinusen ahatalo nidisififi nakonu baredalo. Dopurusen baredalo. Kutusen uhekilo repubinade ogoputinusen seboyanelo ogotanisolo ogolitanulo salade itu kukofi. Dugohusen baredalo kusufinetu huyalunafi bigabofu, arakasusen businalo papayafi sikufi adaneta. Putinusen kusufinelo satude uhekide sikunetu. Ulofusen tusa anatu ogoburokasusen alalo ubenata netananitu.


Smooth Translation

How to Make Meat-cakes

To make the dough, mix ordinary wheat, oil, and salt, and add water as needed. Put aside the dough. Cut up some cooked meat and mix it with onions, spices, and a bit of salt. Knead the dough into walnut-sized balls, and then flatten them into circles with your hands. Put balls of the meat on the circles. Fold them in half and cook them all in an oven until golden.


Interlinear

Nakofu Uhekisudibaredalo
Nak-o-fu Uheki-sudi-bareda-lo
make-GER-TOP meat-sweet-dough-ACC
How to Make Meat-cakes

Putinusen bitilo ogofudahogilo ogosalalo aladefi selatu
Put-in-us-en biti-lo ogo-fudahogi-lo ogo-sala-lo alade-fi sela-tu
put-3DAT-SUBJ-2P wheat-ACC AND-oil-ACC AND-salt-ACC everyday-SIM self-DAT
To make the dough, mix ordinary wheat, oil,

ogoputinusen ahatalo nidisififi nakonu baredalo.
ogo-put-in-us-en ahata-lo nid-is-i-fi-fi nak-o-nu bareda-lo.
AND-put-3DAT-SUBJ-2P water-ACC need-PASS-3PNOM-SIM-SIM make-GER-BEN dough-ACC.
and salt, and add water as needed.

Dopurusen baredalo. Kutusen uhekilo repubinade
Dopur-us-en bareda-lo. Kut-us-en uheki-lo repub-i-na-de
remove-SUBJ-2P dough-ACC. cut-SUBJ-2P meat-ACC cooked-3PNOM-NOM-GEN
Put aside the dough. Cut up some cooked meat and mix it with

ogoputinusen seboyanelo ogotanisolo ogolitanulo salade itu kukofi.
ogo-put-in-us-en seboya-ne-lo ogo-taniso-lo ogo-litanu-lo sala-de i-tu kuk-o-fi.
AND-put-3DAT-SUBJ-2P onion-PL-ACC AND-spice-ACC AND-little-ACC salt-GEN 3P-DAT cook-GER-SIM.
onions, spices, and a bit of salt.

Dugohusen baredalo kusufinetu huyalunafi bigabofu,
Dugoh-us-en bareda-lo kusufi-ne-tu huyaluna-fi bigab-o-fu,
knead-SUBJ-2P dough-ACC ball-PL-DAT walnut-SIM big-GER-TOP,
Knead the dough into walnut-sized balls,

arakasusen businalo papayafi sikufi adaneta.
ara-kas-us-en b-us-in-a-lo papaya-fi siku-fi ada-ne-ta.
THEN-cause-SUBJ-2P BE-SUBJ-3P-PLNOM-ACC paper-SIM circle-SIM hand-PL-INST.
and then flatten them into circles with your hands.

Putinusen kusufinelo satude uhekide sikunetu.
Put-in-us-en kusufi-ne-lo sat-u-de uheki-de siku-ne-tu.
put-3DAT-SUBJ-2P ball-PL-ACC THAT-2DAT-GEN** meat-GEN circle-PL-DAT.
Put balls of the meat on the circles.

Ulofusen tusa anatu ogoburokasusen alalo ubenata netananitu.
Ulof-us-en tu-sa ana-tu ogo-burokas-us-en ala-lo ubena-ta netanani-tu.
fold-SUBJ-2P two-ABL** one-DAT** AND-cook-SUBJ-2P all-ACC oven-INST gold-DAT.
Fold them in half and cook them all in an oven until golden.

Grammar

Grammatical Forms

Cases

PL plural
NOM nominative
ACC accusative
GEN genitive
SIM similative (the manner in which an action is taken; similar to English "like")
DAT dative (where something is moved to or what something is turned into)
ABL ablative (opposite of dative; where things come from)
BEN benefactive (for whom or what an action occurs, for whose benefit)
TOP topic (what is the general topic or focus of the statement; similar to English "as for" or "with respect to")
INST instrumental (what is used to perform the action)

Verb endings

1/2/3P 1st/2nd/3rd person subject
SUBJ subjunctive (indicates that the clause is not an assertion but a possibility; also used in commands)
PASS passive
1/2/3DAT dative endings (see note)
NOM nominalized (see note)
GER gerund (the action associated with the verb (eg "destruction" from "destroy," "skiing" from "ski"); also similar to English -ness on adjectives)

Other

AND "and" (conjunction)
THEN "and then," "next" (conjunction)
THAT "this", "that", or "that over there" depending on the following dative ending (see note)
BE "to be" (the copula)
1/2/3P 1st/2nd/3rd person pronouns (I;you;he/she/it)

General grammatical notes

Inagalasi is a highly agglutinative language (as you can probably tell) with a very rich case system (17 cases). Word order is strictly verb-initial and usually VSO, and modifiers usually follow heads. Adjectives and verbs are not distinguished (well they slightly are but it doesn't matter for this little text); in fact, the only syntactic categories are nouns and verbs.

Verbs (and some special nouns for different reasons) that imply motion usually carry an ending that marks the person of the dative (ie whether the movement is towards me, towards you, or towards neither of us). These dative endings are used even when there is no corresponding noun in the dative case.

There is a rather large set of nouns in Inagalasi that are called "determiners"; these mostly correspond to determiners or quantifiers in English. The noun they modify always follows them and is in the genitive, while the determiner itself takes the case of the full phrase. For example, in a sentence like "I ate two apples", "two" would be a determiner in the accusative and "apples" would follow it in the genitive.

Lastly, the most confusing and complicated aspect of Inagalasi is the nominalization of verbs. First, to turn a clause into a noun-like form as in "the fact that you fly", you take the verb for "you fly" ("falayen") and drop the final consonant ("falaye"). This is indicated in the interlinear by adding "NOM" to the ending the consonant was a part of (compare "falay-en" "fly-2P" and "falay-e" "fly-2PNOM"). Case endings are then added to show the role of the clause in the sentence (eg "I believe (the fact) that you fly" "Karey-an falay-e-lo" "beleive-1P fly-2PNOM-ACC").

Alternatively, a case ending can be added to such a nominalized clause to make a nominal actor, such as "the way in which you fly" or "the person for whom you fly" ("falay-e-fi" "fly-2PNOM-SIM" and "falay-e-nu" "fly-2PNOM-BEN") respectively). The case ending added corresponds to the role of the "actor" in the nominalized clause: if "the way in which you fly" is "(like) a bird", then "you fly like a bird", with "bird" in the similative case. A second case ending is then added to show the role of the nominal actor in the sentence as a whole (as in "I eat in the way in which you fly" "Et-an falay-e-fi-fi" "eat-1P fly-2PNOM-SIM-SIM").

OK, I know that's confusing, but try to make some sense of it; hopefully the exact details won't be too hard when you just have to understand what the text is saying.


Vocabulary

Wordlist:
ada hand
ahata water
ala all, everything
alade "everyday"; in the similative ("aladefi") it means "ordinary"
ana one; see note under "ulof" for idiomatic usage
bareda dough; bread (in compounds)
biga(b) large, great
biti wheat
burokas to cook, heat, burn
dopur to remove, displace, put aside
dugoh to knead, shape, form
fudahogi (cooking) oil
huyaluna walnut
kas to cause
kuk to cook; see note under "put" for idiomatic usage
kusufi sphere, ball, any 3-dimensional round shape
kut to cut
litanu "a little bit"
nak to make
netanani gold
nid to need
papaya paper; flat (in the similative "papayafi")
put to put, place; when followed by "selatu" or "kukofi" it means "mix together"
repu(b) cooked, ripe, mature
sala salt
seboya onion
sela "self"; see note under "put" for idiomatic usage
siky circle
sudi(b) sweet, good-tasting
taniso spice, flavoring
tu two; see note under "ulof" for idiomatic usage
ubena oven
uheki meat
ulof to fold; when followed by "tusa anatu" means "fold in half"

<< Thalassan Calénnawn >>

Content

Index

June 14th, 2005
Comments? Suggestions? Corrections? You can drop me a line.
zpentrabvagiktu@theiling.de
Schwerpunktpraxis