Ring N/X: 3/11: Inagalasi
Putinusen bitilo ogofudahogilo ogosalalo aladefi selatu
ogoputinusen ahatalo nidisififi nakonu baredalo.
Dopurusen baredalo. Kutusen uhekilo repubinade
ogoputinusen seboyanelo ogotanisolo ogolitanulo salade itu kukofi.
Dugohusen baredalo kusufinetu huyalunafi bigabofu,
arakasusen businalo papayafi sikufi adaneta.
Putinusen kusufinelo satude uhekide sikunetu.
Ulofusen tusa anatu ogoburokasusen alalo ubenata netananitu.
How to Make Meat-cakes
To make the dough, mix ordinary wheat, oil,
and salt, and add water as needed.
Put aside the dough. Cut up some cooked meat and mix it with
onions, spices, and a bit of salt.
Knead the dough into walnut-sized balls,
and then flatten them into circles with your hands.
Put balls of the meat on the circles.
Fold them in half and cook them all in an oven until golden.
|How to Make Meat-cakes
|To make the dough, mix ordinary wheat, oil,
|and salt, and add water as needed.
|Put aside the dough. Cut up some cooked meat and mix it with
|onions, spices, and a bit of salt.
|Knead the dough into walnut-sized balls,
|and then flatten them into circles with your hands.
|Put balls of the meat on the circles.
|Fold them in half and cook them all in an oven until golden.
|| similative (the manner in which an action is taken; similar to English "like")|
|| dative (where something is moved to or what something is turned into)|
|| ablative (opposite of dative; where things come from)|
|| benefactive (for whom or what an action occurs, for whose benefit)|
|| topic (what is the general topic or focus of the statement; similar to English "as for" or "with respect to")|
|| instrumental (what is used to perform the action)|
|| 1st/2nd/3rd person subject|
|| subjunctive (indicates that the clause is not an assertion but a possibility; also used in commands)|
|| dative endings (see note)|
|| nominalized (see note)|
|| gerund (the action associated with the verb (eg "destruction" from "destroy," "skiing" from "ski"); also similar to English -ness on adjectives)|
|| "and" (conjunction)|
|| "and then," "next" (conjunction)|
|| "this", "that", or "that over there" depending on the following dative ending (see note)|
|| "to be" (the copula)|
|| 1st/2nd/3rd person pronouns (I;you;he/she/it)|
General grammatical notes
Inagalasi is a highly agglutinative language (as you can probably tell) with
a very rich case system (17 cases). Word order is strictly verb-initial and
usually VSO, and modifiers usually follow heads. Adjectives and verbs are
not distinguished (well they slightly are but it doesn't matter for this
little text); in fact, the only syntactic categories are nouns and verbs.
Verbs (and some special nouns for different reasons) that imply motion
usually carry an ending that marks the person of the dative (ie whether the
movement is towards me, towards you, or towards neither of us). These
dative endings are used even when there is no corresponding noun in the
There is a rather large set of nouns in Inagalasi that are called
"determiners"; these mostly correspond to determiners or quantifiers in
English. The noun they modify always follows them and is in the genitive,
while the determiner itself takes the case of the full phrase. For example,
in a sentence like "I ate two apples", "two" would be a determiner in the
accusative and "apples" would follow it in the genitive.
Lastly, the most confusing and complicated aspect of Inagalasi is the
nominalization of verbs. First, to turn a clause into a noun-like form as
in "the fact that you fly", you take the verb for "you fly" ("falayen") and
drop the final consonant ("falaye"). This is indicated in the interlinear
by adding "NOM" to the ending the consonant was a part of (compare
"falay-en" "fly-2P" and "falay-e" "fly-2PNOM"). Case endings are then added
to show the role of the clause in the sentence (eg "I believe (the fact)
that you fly" "Karey-an falay-e-lo" "beleive-1P fly-2PNOM-ACC").
Alternatively, a case ending can be added to such a nominalized clause to
make a nominal actor, such as "the way in which you fly" or "the person for
whom you fly" ("falay-e-fi" "fly-2PNOM-SIM" and "falay-e-nu"
"fly-2PNOM-BEN") respectively). The case ending added corresponds to the
role of the "actor" in the nominalized clause: if "the way in which you fly"
is "(like) a bird", then "you fly like a bird", with "bird" in the
similative case. A second case ending is then added to show the role of the
nominal actor in the sentence as a whole (as in "I eat in the way in which
you fly" "Et-an falay-e-fi-fi" "eat-1P fly-2PNOM-SIM-SIM").
OK, I know that's confusing, but try to make some sense of it; hopefully the
exact details won't be too hard when you just have to understand what the
text is saying.
||"everyday"; in the similative ("aladefi") it means "ordinary"|
||one; see note under "ulof" for idiomatic usage|
||dough; bread (in compounds)|
||to cook, heat, burn|
||to remove, displace, put aside|
||to knead, shape, form|
||to cook; see note under "put" for idiomatic usage|
||sphere, ball, any 3-dimensional round shape|
||"a little bit"|
||paper; flat (in the similative "papayafi")|
||to put, place; when followed by "selatu" or "kukofi" it means "mix together"|
||cooked, ripe, mature|
||"self"; see note under "put" for idiomatic usage|
||two; see note under "ulof" for idiomatic usage|
||to fold; when followed by "tusa anatu" means "fold in half"|