Ring N/X: 11/11: Sindarin

Chris Wright
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[ Sindarin | Smooth English | Grammar | Vocabulary ]

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Echadel craim aes

  1. Goechado i dûg, gond i aear, a ast thâr.
  2. Goechado ha a nen faen.
  3. Narcho ha or eryn bath.
  4. Risto i aes a echedo nengin cam.
  5. Goechado i nengin, gelais aes, a gond i aear.
  6. Echado i aes lhind.
  7. Echado ceryn od i dûg. Pân i geryn cam.
  8. Echado i geryn lhainwain.
  9. Narcho nengen aes erin enidh i echyr.
  10. An echadel tâd baich dalu, echado pân i enidh talu.
  11. Nedh tûg, anno ûr i vaich uin lû ir mhelin.

Smooth Translation

Making cakes of meat

  1. Mix the fat, salt, and flour.
  2. Mix it and milk.
  3. Put it on smooth wood.
  4. Cut the meat and make hand-sized pieces.
  5. Mix the pieces, food plants, and salt.
  6. Make the meat thin.
  7. Make balls of the fat. All the balls [are] the size of hands.
  8. Make the balls very thin.
  9. Put a piece of meat on the centres of the circles.
  10. For making two flat things, make all the circles flat.
  11. In fat, cook the things to the time when [they are] yellow.


Sindarin grammar is actually evil. It involves mutations a-plenty, along with vowel affectations (becoming more similar to /i/) for plural marking (sort-of like umlaut). So if you've got a plural with some sort of mutation applied, the word is essentially unrecognisable. You might prefer to guess, based on the pattern of vowels and consonants, which words a particular target might be from, then eliminate them one by one based on applicable mutations. But only initial consonants change for mutations, so that helps a lot. And fortunately case is uninflected.

This is a pro-dropping, null copula language.

For verbs, all you need know is that both derived and basic verbs (the types we're dealing with) take |-o| as their imperative markers, and basic verbs (the only relevant type now) take -el as their present (active) participle marker.

Adjectives agree with their nouns in number. Their plural formation is identical to that of nouns. When they appear after the noun they modify, they undergo the soft mutation.

The definite article (even in combined form as 'uin' "to the") causes the soft mutation.

Soft mutation:

Vowel affectation patterns (ignoring length {|a| vs |â|} unless marked):

Adjectives form an intensifying / superlative meaning by appending -wain.


The definite article directly precedes the word it modifies, and adjectives (all adjuncts) follow. So you get a word order in a DP (NP) of Article, Noun, Adjective.

Word order is SVO. Theme precedes Goal: you say "John gave the book to Mary" rather than "John gave Mary the book". Neither Theme nor Goal is marked, ever, with overt case, though some verbs require Goal to be something other than a nominal element.

Genitive phrases are merely juxtaposed: "gond i aear" is a good example. The possessor follows the possessed element--a regular genitive rather than the odd Saxon genitive of English. The genitive element receives no overt case.

Prepositions rather than postpositions are used.



ann- give
echad- make
goechad- mix, add
narch- (here used as place)
rist- cut


aear sea
aes meat, food
ast dust
bach thing
cam hand
coron ball
cram cake (not used here as a confection)
echor ring, circle
enedh core, centre, middle
eryn wood
galas growth, plant
gond stone
nen water
nengen (here used as piece)
pân all (us. with genitive phrase)
thâr grass
tûg fat
ûr heat


faen white
lhain thin, lean, meagre
lhind thin
malen yellow
path smooth, flat
talu flat, thin

All the Rest

a and
an with, by, for
erin on the
ha it
i (definite article)
ir when
nedh in
od from
or on
tâd two
uin to the


stone of the sea salt
genitive hand a handfull of; the size of a hand/fist
white water milk
give heat cook
grass dust flour

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June 14th, 2005
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