Ring E: 9/22: Tatari Faran
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nisimun ifasan baripai'i utu
tibe tumahan mei so e, fasa misais so, nesaras tibas sa ei, tibun usus so ei, ma'an katabatis sa ei, kiaram sa ei, buarat si'ei, bihuun tiras so ei, purifiras si'ei, kitina tibas si'ei, ma'an ba'atis keitis sa ei ai.
nijiabat simunis baripai'i utu e, pirintai fasa so buarat si'ei purifiras si'ei puput. makara fasa so ma'an katabatis ibi buarat si'ei bihuun tiras so ei purifiras si'ei kitina tibas si'ei ma'an ba'atis keitis sa ei tibun imi parapa.
nipurat simunis baripai'i utu e, makara nesaras tibas sa usu si'ei ma'an katabatis sa ei kiaram sa ei parapa. puat hena hebu'u tueri nei tumahan mei so pika ara. pama hena bu'u misei purat jibet nei pini.
nisimun ifasan akatai'i utu e, turei purat jibet nei jiabat so kupan ara, sikitai hena jibet puratis no tsit. tibe hena hesimun so pente' ihabasan diabas nei jijit. tantitai hena sarapi. usa isi ipente' arapi no isimun ikumat iti airan, simun ifasan so isi biamas kana.
kimei ei e, san tse ko tintan era fasa misais so fasa atse uenain so huinui. fasa keika'inas so era, fasa tikis so ibe, buneis sei ibe ai. kitina sei tintan era ei tsinka hibei so huinui.
How to cook Meat Wraps
Prepare beforehand the following ingredients: deer meat, powdered wheat [i.e. flour], a bowl of water, essence of olives, salt, onion, white powdered pepper, bulb of garlic, powdered sour spice, and sour essence of fruit [e.g. lime juice or vinegar].
To prepare the stuffing of the Wraps: chop up the meat, the onion, and the garlic. Mix the meat with the essence of olives, and the onion, white powdered pepper, garlic, powdered sour spice, and sour essence of fruit, in a bowl.
To prepare the skin of the Wraps: mix the powdered wheat, essence of olives, and salt. Knead these ingredients into small balls with [your] hands. Then flatten these balls into circular skins.
To assemble the Meat Wraps: put the stuffing into the circular skins using a scoop; then press the circumference of the skins together. Arrange the Wraps on a cooking stone tray, and then bake over coals. Be ready to remove the stone tray when the Wraps brown; for that is when the Wraps are ready for eating.
Take note also: you may substitute the deer meat with the meat you desire. Perhaps wolf meat, or rabbit meat, or giant mushrooms. The sour spice also may be substituted with another green herb.
|How to cook Meat Wraps|
|Prepare beforehand the following ingredients: deer meat, powdered|
|wheat [i.e. flour], a bowl of water, essence|
|of olives, salt, onion,|
|white powdered pepper, bulb of garlic, powdered sour spice,|
|and sour essence of fruit [e.g. lime juice or vinegar].|
|To prepare the stuffing of the Wraps:|
|chop up the meat, the onion, and the garlic.|
|Mix the meat with the essence of olives, and the onion,|
|white powdered pepper, garlic, powdered sour spice,|
|and sour essence of fruit, in a bowl.|
|To prepare the skin of the Wraps: mix the powdered|
|wheat, essence of olives,|
|and salt. Knead these ingredients into small balls|
|with [your] hands. Then flatten these balls|
|into circular skins.|
|To assemble the Meat Wraps:|
|put the stuffing into the circular skins using a scoop;|
|then press the circumference of the skins together.|
|Arrange the Wraps on a cooking stone tray,|
|and then bake over coals. Be ready to remove the stone tray|
|when the Wraps brown; for that is when the Wraps|
|are ready for eating.|
|Take note also: you may substitute the deer meat with|
|the meat you desire. Perhaps wolf meat,|
|or rabbit meat, or giant mushrooms.|
|The sour spice also may be substituted with another|
(I believe I don't need to do this, but I'm doing it anyway for the sake of people who like to read relay entries but don't have the time/energy to decipher the text directly.)
(Note: there is an error in the original text above: _usu_ is feminine and so should be marked with a feminine case clitic which would fuse with the conjunction _ei_. I've taken the liberty to correct this here. The original incorrectly uses the neuter clitic _so_ instead.)
Tatari Faran has 13 consonants and 6 basic vowels (plus 4 long vowels and 5 glides). The consonants are written as:
Note that /d/ and /r/ are the same phoneme, realized as [d] when word-initial and  when word-medial. The orthography also uses this convention. Hence, when adding a prefix to a word with initial /d/, the /d/ will be written as /r/. E.g.: he + diru -> heriru.
/r/ is pronounced , and /j/ is pronounced [dz)], /ts/ as [ts)], and /'/ is the glottal stop [?]. Vowel-initial words have an implicit initial glottal stop, which shows up when prefixes are added to the word. For example:
he + asuen -> he'asuen
The presence or absence of a final glottal stop is significant. For example, _bata'_ is "chief" and _bata_ is "to walk".
The vowels are written as:
/e/ is pronounced [E], /ue/ is a *short* vowel pronounced [M], and [o] is pronounced [O]. The long vowels are:
which are pronounced, respectively, [a:], [ej], [i:], and [u:]. The glides are:
which are pronounced, respectively, [aj], [ao], [ja], [wa], and [uj].
Tatari Faran is generally head-initial. The head noun always appears first, followed by any modifiers. Adjectives follow the head noun, and adverbs follow the verb. Primary noun case is marked by case clitics, which always appear last in a noun phrase. Gender is marked on the case clitic. Demonstratives follow any adjectives but precede the case clitic. Relative clauses also appear between any adjectives and the case clitic.
Word order in a clause depends on verbal mood. The first NP in a clause is the syntactic subject, which is independent of noun case. The following word orders are attested (parts in [square brackets] are optional):
NP (subject) - Verb - [argument NP's] - Complement
|Imperative||Verb - [NP (subject)] - [argument NP's] - [Complement]|
|Subjunctive||Verb - NP (subject) - [argument NP's]|
|Interrogative||NP (subject) - [argument NP's] - Verb|
When a verb appears at the head of a sentence, that is a signal that it is either imperative or subjunctive. The syntactic subject in the imperative mood is usually the second person, and is often elided.
Note: the syntactic subject in Tatari Faran does NOT correlate with semantic role with respect to the verb. It serves only a purely syntactic function, in such processes as subject elision, etc.. Semantic role is indicated by the case system, described further on.
The complement is a word synonymous with the main verb or predicative adjective, and is used as a re-emphasis of the verb/adjective in the indicative case. It may sometimes give an additional nuance to the verb (see the COMPLEMENTS section below). It is usually left untranslated unless the target language has an equivalent feature. Note that although complements generally do have semantic referents, they play mainly a syntactic role, and so one ought to be cautious not to take the lexicon meaning of complements too literally.
Note that any of the NP slots above may be substituted with a postpositional clause. Postpositions in Tatari Faran play an analogous role to prepositions in English. The postposition follows the head noun and any modifiers. The case clitic is omitted. When the governed NP is inside a relative clause, it uses the auxilliary conveyant case. Some postpositions govern a subordinate clause, which is formed as an infinitive (described later).
The first NP slot is the syntactic subject. If a postpositional clause substitutes the first NP slot, the second NP slot becomes the syntactic subject instead. E.g., the indicative word order would become:
PP - Verb - NP (subject) - [argument NP's] - Complement.
The syntactic subject may be omitted from subsequent clauses if identical, by the use of a conjunction.
The core case clitics are:
Case clitics always occur at the end of a noun phrase. The meaning of the core cases is described in its own section (below).
Case clitics may undergo mutations depending on the surrounding words. For the benefit of the translator, the various alternate forms are separately glossed in the glossary.
Plurals, Genitives, Compositives, and Partitives
Tatari Faran is mostly isolating, but there are a few important inflections to take note of, as described below.
1) Plural nouns are formed by prefixing the noun with he-. E.g.:
san -> hesan
Note, however, that this plural form is *emphatic* and *optional*. It is only used to emphasize the plurality of the referent. Normally, the singular noun form is used to refer to singular and plural referents alike.
2) Genitives are formed by suffixing -n (vowel final) or -an (consonant final) to a noun. For example:
diru -> dirun
san -> sanan
If the noun ends with -nan, however, that is substituted with -naran instead. For example:
jiranan -> jiranaran (NOT jirananan)
Genitives are used for possession ("the house of the woman") or origin ("man of Fara", "child of the mother").
3) Compositives are formed just like genitives, except that an additional prefix i- is added. For example:
san -> isanan
jiranan -> ijiranaran
Compositives are used for making compound words. For example, the genitive _diru dukunan_ means "girl of the servant", whereas the compositive _diru idukunan_ means "servant girl".
4) Partitives are formed by suffixing -s (vowel final) or -is (consonant final). For example:
bunari -> bunaris
jibin -> jibinis
If the noun ends with -s, however, that is substituted with -tis instead. For example:
panis -> panitis (NOT panisis)
Partitives are used for indicating subsets ("three of the men") and component parts ("hand of the woman", "top of the volcano").
Tatari Faran typology is unlike the Standard Average European accusative or ergative typology. It is structured around the three core cases: originative, conveyant, and receptive, which are chosen *semantically* rather than syntactically. This is very important to understand, as otherwise you will not be able to make much sense out of Tatari Faran.
The originative case is used for indicating source, agent, or actor.
The receptive case is used for indicating destination, recipient, patient, or beneficiary.
The conveyant case is used for indicating object of motion, patient, or that which is moved or conveyed by the verb.
These cases are chosen *independently* of whether the NP is serving as the syntactic subject of the sentence.
1) With verbs of motion, the originative case indicates the origin of motion, the conveyant case indicates that which is in motion, and the receptive case indicates the direction or destination of motion. For example:
|I walk to the cinder cone.|
If we change the case of the NP's, we get a different meaning:
|I walk from the cinder cone.|
We can move "cinder cone" to the front, which in Tatari Faran word order makes it the syntactic subject:
|From the cinder cone I walk.|
Note that the semantic, factual content of the sentence has not changed. Only the emphasis has changed.
2) Verbs of sensation (see, smell, hear, etc.) are divided into two categories, "out-reaching" verbs and "in-sensing" verbs. E.g.:
|The wolf sniffs at the child.|
|The child smells the wolf.|
The only difference between the two sentences is the verb (and its complement), yet in the English translation, there is a switch of subject and object. Why?
The verb _huena_ means "to sniff at" - the active act of sniffing at something or someone; whereas the verb _fahun_ means "to smell" - the involitive happenstance of an odor reaching one's nose. With verb _huena_, one is "reaching out" one's olfactory attention toward something; hence the originative case is used for the sniffer, and the receptive case is used for that which is sniffed at. With the verb _fahun_, however, one is *receiving* olfactory information from something: hence the *receptive* case is used for the smeller, and the *originative* case is used for that which is smelled.
This distinction, which is mostly absent in English (the same verb "smell" is used in both senses), is very important in Tatari Faran. Take for example, the following pair of sentences:
Again, the only difference between the two is the verb. However, if translated to English, the first reads "I look at her", whereas the second reads "she sees me". The latter may seem counter-intuitive to an English speaker; but keep in mind that with the verb _juerat_, one is *directing* one's visual attention at something, and hence the looker is originative, and the thing looked at is receptive. However, with the verb _hamra_, one is *receiving* sight of something, hence the seer is *receptive*, and that which is seen is *originative*, being the origin of that sight.
The same analysis applies to the verbs _kuni iti'_, "to listen", and _dutan inin_, "to hear". With _kuni_, the listener is originative and the thing listened for is receptive; whereas with _dutan_, the hearer is receptive and the thing heard is originative.
With all sensory verbs, the conveyant case is used for the actual sensation being perceived: the sight seen (color, shape, etc.), the sound heard (as opposed to that which makes the sound), the odor (the stinkiness of the wolf), etc..
3) With verbs of giving, the originative is used for the giver, the receptive for the recipient, and the conveyant for the gift. For example:
|The girl gives flowers to [her] younger brother.|
4) With (most) intransitive verbs, the subject is conveyant. For example:
|He is sleeping.|
5) With verbs that involve change of state, that which is changed is usually in the conveyant, and the result of the change in the receptive. For example:
|I build the logs into a hut.|
In Tatari Faran, every verb and every adjective has a corresponding *complement*, which is a synonymous word used to re-emphasize and/or complement the predicate in the indicative mood. For example:
|The girl is beautiful.|
The complement _kakat_ means "gaudy" or "colorful". It is used here to complement the adjectival predicate _jui'in_ "beautiful", as a manner of emphasizing the girl's stunning beauty. With another adjective, a different complement is used:
|The dress is yellow.|
The complement _inai_ means "yellowing", or "brightly colored". It is used here as an emphasis of the yellow color of the dress.
Verbs in the indicative mood are complemented in the same way. For example:
|I walk to the cinder cone.|
The complement _bata_ is synonymous with _tapa_, "to walk". It is used as a re-emphasis of the verb.
Sometimes, a verb can have more than one possible complement. In such cases, the use of different complements may add an additional nuance to the verb. For example:
|The young man runs.|
The complement _asu_ implies smoothness or fluency; hence, the running of the young man here is likened to that of an athlete. On the other hand, consider the following example:
|The child runs.|
The complement _itan_ implies stumbling, franticness, or suddenness. Hence, the running of the child is likened to one of repeatedly stumbling and getting up.
It is customary to leave the complement untranslated if the target language has no direct analog of it. One should also be aware in translating Tatari Faran that sometimes complements are used simply because it is customary to use it for that particular verb or adjective; the lexical meaning of the complement may or may not be intended literally.
Multi-clause constructions in Tatari Faran are built by means of conjunctions.
The most commonly encountered conjunction is _hena_, "and". Note that _hena_ is used ONLY to join clauses, NOT NP's. In a 2-clause construction, _hena_ appears as the second element of the clause in the second clause. In the indicative mood, this is immediately after the first NP. For example:
|I dropped the giant mushroom, and the rabbit sniffed at it.|
In the imperative mood, this is after the verb (sometimes also after any adverbs or verbal modifiers).
Cause-and-effect constructions use the conjunction _isi_, "because". Note that _isi_ appears in BOTH clauses; the cause clause is distinguished by dropping its complement, and the result clause is distinguished by having one. For example:
|I ran away, because I saw a wolf.|
|Because I ran away, I saw a wolf.|
Relative clauses appear between the head noun and its corresponding case clitic, following any adjectives, genitives, etc.. The relative clause begins with any argument NP's and is terminated by a relativised verb. The argument NP's are inflected in a special way, called Auxilliary Case Inflection, which uses prefixes to mark core case instead of case clitics.
The relative verb is inflected to indicate the function of the head noun in the relative clause:
|Originative||a- (consonant-final), or -kan (vowel-final).|
i- (consonant-initial), or -s (vowel-initial, vowel-final),
|Receptive||-an (consonant-final), or -n (vowel-final).|
Auxilliary Case Inflection
These inflections mark noun case inside a relative clause:
E.g.: diru -> ariru (org), iriru (cvy), niriru (rcp).
Isolated relative clause examples:
|diru ahuu itapa sei||the girl who walked away from me|
|diru nihuu itapa sei||the girl who walked to me|
|diru ihuu tapakan sei||the girl from whom I walked away|
|diru ihuu tapan sei||the girl to whom I walked|
Example sentences containing relative clauses:
|I see the young man who spoke to the chief.|
Embedded Postpositional Clauses
Postpositional clauses may also be embedded in an NP in the same place a relative clause may appear (i.e. between the head noun and its case clitic, following any adjectives). The noun governed by the postposition is inflected for auxilliary conveyant case, and the postposition receives accent. E.g.:
|The man sees the monkey (which is) on top of the tree.|
Infinitive clauses are formed in a similar way to relative clauses. The argument NP's in the infinite clause are inflected using Auxilliary Case Inflection to indicate that the nouns are in a subordinate clause; and the infinitive clause is ended by the verb, nominalized by the infinitive suffix -i (consonant-final verb) or -'i (vowel-final verb). A neuter case clitic is follows the infinitive verb, and the clause is then treated like a neuter NP.
|I see the girl walk to the cinder cone.|
The infinitive clause is _iriru ni'itsan tapa'i ko_.
Infinitive clauses can also be governed by a postposition, in which case the case clitic is omitted:
|I walk to the volcano in order that I see the monkey.|
|I walk to the volcano to see the monkey.|
The postposition _utu_ means "for the purpose of", and governs the infinitive clause _nihuu atsaritas hamra'i_.
|a-||auxilliary org. case prefix.|
|ai||(1) interj. yes, indeed; (2) compl. it is so, indeed. (Note: _ai_ is often used as a generic complement in predicates lacking a verb or a predicating adjective.)|
|airan||compl. with freshness, with vitality, dynamic.|
|akatai||v. to assemble, to build, to join, to attach component parts to each other.|
|ara||post. with (a wielded weapon or instrument), using.|
|arap||v. to pick up, to take (something). Taker in rcp., thing taken in cvy., place or person taken from in org..|
|ba'as||fem. n. edible fruit.|
|baripai||v. to cook, to prepare food. See: sarapi.|
|bihuun||neut. n. (1) powdered pepper; (2) any strongly aromatic powder, esp. with pepper-like spicy and sneeze-inducing properties.|
|biamas||adj. freshly cooked, delicious, tasty. Refers to hot, freshly cooked food. Compare _sarap_.|
|bu'u||fem. n. ball, round lump.|
|buarat||fem. n. onion, esp. the bulb part of the plant.|
|buneis||fem. n. giant mushroom. Refers to an edible species of giant agaric with a brown cap that grows up to several feet in diameter and a thick, short stem, usually found in forests at high altitudes.|
|diabas||adj. greasy, sticky.|
|e||ptcl. (1) Marks the start of quoted discourse. (2) Introduces an elaboration; "that is", "that is to say", "as follows".|
|ei||(1) post. nominal conj., "and", "also". Follows case clitic of modified NP. (2) adv. "also". Note that it can only occur in adverbial position in this usage, not as a conjunction.|
|era||adv. "if", "maybe". Follows verb. If follows subjunctive verb, means "if"; if follows indicative verb, means "maybe".|
|fasa||neut. n. (1) meat, flesh. (2) carcass, esp. of a freshly hunted animal.|
|habas||v. (1) _habas saa_ - to set on fire, to ignite (volitive). (2) _habas sarapi_ - to cook over fire.|
|he-||plur. prefix. Usually only used emphatically.|
|hena||conj. "and then".|
|hibei||dem. n., another, the other.|
|huinui||compl. to be confused, to be rearranged, to be mixed up, to be jumbled.|
|i-||(1) auxilliary cvy. case prefix for nouns. (2) cvy. relativisation prefix for verbs/adjectives.|
|i-...-an||compositive case circumfix for consonant-final nouns.|
|i-...-n||compositive case circumfix for vowel-final nouns.|
|-i||infinitive suffix for consonant-final verbs.|
|-'i||infinitive suffix for vowel-final verbs.|
|ibe||nominal disj., (exclusive) "or", "if not, then this". Follows case clitic of NP.|
|ibi||post. together with, accompanied by. Refers to accompaniment with the topic NP.|
|imi||post. in, inside of, within (an object or person).|
|-is||partitive case suffix for consonant-final nouns.|
|isi||conj. "because". Occurs in both the cause clause and the result clause. The verb complement is omitted from the cause clause but present in the result clause as a manner of emphasis. When the topic NP is present, _isi_ occurs immediately following; when the topic NP has been elided, _isi_ begins the clause and takes the case particle as a modifier.|
|isu||compl. wrenchingly, to have a wrenching sensation.|
|iti||temp. post. when, during, at (a particular time).|
|jiabat||neut. n. paste, esp. of food made into paste; stuffing.|
|jibet||neut. (1) n. perimeter, circumference; (2) adj. circular.|
|jijit||compl. to lay out in proper order, to line up one by one.|
|kana||(1) temp. adv. now, at this time, immediately. (2) temp. post. case marker, this time. Used only with temporal nouns, e.g.: _baran kana_ - in this morning; _mubun kana_ - in this night; tonight.|
|katabas||fem. n. black olive.|
|keika'ina||masc. n., fierce, feral wolf.|
|kiaram||masc. n. salt.|
|kiki||compl. excited, agitated.|
|kimei||v. to perceive, to understand, to notice. The perceiver is in the rcp..|
|kitina||fem. n. sour spice, esp. green herb or edible leaf that is sour-tasting.|
|ko||neut. org. clitic.|
|kumat||adj. orange, tan, golden brown.|
|kupan||masc. n. scoop, ladle, spoon.|
|ma'an||masc. n. (1) fat, oil, thick juice; (2) essence, liquid extract, esp. viscous liquid yielded through crushing.|
|makara||v. (1) to blend, to mix together; (2) to throw (things) into a disorganized heap.|
|mei||dem. n., this, these.|
|miin||compl. satiated, filled.|
|misai||fem. n. deer.|
|misei||Contraction of _mei_ and _sei_.|
|nesaras||masc. n. wheat, barley; any edible grain.|
|-n||(1) genitive case suffix for vowel-final nouns. (2) rcp. relativisation suffix for verbs.|
|nei||fem. rcp. case clitic.|
|ni-||auxilliary rcp. case prefix.|
|no||neut. rcp. case clitic.|
|pama||v. (1) _pama pini_ - to press down, to flatten; (2) _pama ukan_ - to push downwards.|
|parapa||compl. to be in a messy state, to be in a heap, to be in collapse and ruin.|
|pente'||fem. n. stone tray.|
|pika||neut. n. hand, or the palm of the hand.|
|pini||compl. to be flattened.|
|pirintai||v. to cut into small pieces (esp. with a sharp instrument), to chop into bits.|
|puat||v. (1) _puat isu_ - to squeeze (with the hands), to wring; (2) _puat ubu_ - to knead, to mold, to shape with the hands.|
|puput||compl. to be in chunks, to be in pieces.|
|purat||fem. n. skin, esp. animal skin used to make clothing.|
|purifiras||fem. n. bulb of garlic; lit. flower-root, so named because the arrangement of its cloves resembles the arrangement of flower petals.|
|-s||partitive case suffix for vowel-final nouns.|
|sa||masc. cvy. case clitic.|
|saa||compl. to catch fire.|
|san||(1) n. person, human. (2) post. Mr., Ms., Mrs. Used as an emphatically formal modifier for proper nouns.|
|san tse||(1) Common generic greeting. (2) Formal, polite term of address.|
|sarap||adj. (1) _sarap kiki_ - delicious, has an exciting taste. (2) _sarap miin_ - delicious and satiating.|
|sarapi||compl. to be cooked deliciously.|
|sei||fem. cvy. case clitic.|
|si'ei||Contraction of _sei_ and _ei_.|
|sikitai||v. to pinch, to press together.|
|simun||neut. n. wrapping, something wrapped.|
|so||neut. cvy. case clitic.|
|tantitai||v. to bake over coals.|
|tibas||adj. of a fine, powdered form.|
|tibe||v. to prepare in advance, to lay out in order, to arrange. See: jijit.|
|tibun||neut. n. (1) bowl; (2) derog. half of the hard shell of a fruit, worn as a primitive kind of helmet.|
|tiki||fem. n. rabbit, hare.|
|tintan||v. to swap, to exchange, to rearrange, to permute. The objects being swapped are in the cvy.|
|-tis||partitive case suffix for s-final nouns (replaces the noun's final s).|
|tse||[tsE] (1) sg. 2nd person pronoun, "you". (2) Interjection: "Sir!", "Ma'am!", "you there!". (3) Vocative particle, inserted between last adjective and case clitic.|
|tsinka||neut. n. (1) green onion; (2) any edible green herb.|
|tsit||compl. to be pinched, to stick together, to fasten.|
|tueri||adj. small, tiny.|
|tumahan||masc. n. (1) riches, resources; (2) ingredients, components.|
|turei||v. (1) to enter into, to insert, to put inside, to cause to be inside. (2) to instill, to inspire.|
|ubu||compl. to be rounded, to be molded into a lump.|
|uenai||v. to desire, to want, to like (something).|
|ukan||compl. weighing down, substantial.|
|usa||v. (1) to live, to be awake, to be active. Active person in org.; (2) (with rcp. NP) to be attentive to something, to be ready to do something.|
|usu||fem. n. water.|
|utu||post. + infin. for the purpose of, in order to.|
|AUX_CVY||auxilliary conveyant case|
|AUX_ORG||auxilliary originative case|
|AUX_RCP||auxilliary receptive case|
|REL_CVY||conveyant relativisation affix|
|REL_RCP||receptive relativisation affix|
Some concultural notes that may be of interest:
- Domestic animals are not slaughtered for food, as that is considered vulgar.
All meat is hunted, and considered a delicacy rather than part of staple
- Therefore, beef is considered taboo unless one somehow manages to hunt cattle. So I've substituted "beef" in the original text with "deer meat".
- This does, however, give rise to the interesting situation that village- raised wolves, used as guards, are considered domestic and hence cannot be eaten, but hunted feral wolves in the wild are perfectly fine as food.
- The san faran know of no ocean nor any (surface) bodies of salt water, since they are isolated in the Fara surrounded by impassable mountains. Their salt is mined from wells that tap into salty deposits underground. Hence, "sea salt" is a foreign concept to them; so I have taken the liberty to translate "sea salt" in the original text simply as "salt".
- Food-related utensils are either wooden or stone. Although metallurgy has been recently developed by the san faran, metal is regarded as suitable only for building structures or making machines, not for eating utensils. Hence, trays used for food are necessarily wooden or stone. In the case of food baked over coals, the tray must necessarily be stone. :-)
- And on the topic of baking, the san faran use kilns for baking bricks and the like, but not for making food. Baking things in an oven is a foreign concept to them. Their usual method of baking is to cook over hot coals (or sometimes over a volcanic heat source, such as geysers or even lava flows among the more adventurous cooks).
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