Ring E: 9/22: Tatari Faran

H.S. Teoh
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Tatari Faran

nisimun ifasan baripai'i utu

tibe tumahan mei so e, fasa misais so, nesaras tibas sa ei, tibun usus so ei, ma'an katabatis sa ei, kiaram sa ei, buarat si'ei, bihuun tiras so ei, purifiras si'ei, kitina tibas si'ei, ma'an ba'atis keitis sa ei ai.

nijiabat simunis baripai'i utu e, pirintai fasa so buarat si'ei purifiras si'ei puput. makara fasa so ma'an katabatis ibi buarat si'ei bihuun tiras so ei purifiras si'ei kitina tibas si'ei ma'an ba'atis keitis sa ei tibun imi parapa.

nipurat simunis baripai'i utu e, makara nesaras tibas sa usu si'ei ma'an katabatis sa ei kiaram sa ei parapa. puat hena hebu'u tueri nei tumahan mei so pika ara. pama hena bu'u misei purat jibet nei pini.

nisimun ifasan akatai'i utu e, turei purat jibet nei jiabat so kupan ara, sikitai hena jibet puratis no tsit. tibe hena hesimun so pente' ihabasan diabas nei jijit. tantitai hena sarapi. usa isi ipente' arapi no isimun ikumat iti airan, simun ifasan so isi biamas kana.

kimei ei e, san tse ko tintan era fasa misais so fasa atse uenain so huinui. fasa keika'inas so era, fasa tikis so ibe, buneis sei ibe ai. kitina sei tintan era ei tsinka hibei so huinui.


Smooth Translation

How to cook Meat Wraps

Prepare beforehand the following ingredients: deer meat, powdered wheat [i.e. flour], a bowl of water, essence of olives, salt, onion, white powdered pepper, bulb of garlic, powdered sour spice, and sour essence of fruit [e.g. lime juice or vinegar].

To prepare the stuffing of the Wraps: chop up the meat, the onion, and the garlic. Mix the meat with the essence of olives, and the onion, white powdered pepper, garlic, powdered sour spice, and sour essence of fruit, in a bowl.

To prepare the skin of the Wraps: mix the powdered wheat, essence of olives, and salt. Knead these ingredients into small balls with [your] hands. Then flatten these balls into circular skins.

To assemble the Meat Wraps: put the stuffing into the circular skins using a scoop; then press the circumference of the skins together. Arrange the Wraps on a cooking stone tray, and then bake over coals. Be ready to remove the stone tray when the Wraps brown; for that is when the Wraps are ready for eating.

Take note also: you may substitute the deer meat with the meat you desire. Perhaps wolf meat, or rabbit meat, or giant mushrooms. The sour spice also may be substituted with another green herb.


Interlinear

nisimun ifasan baripai'i utu
ni-simun i-fasa-n baripai-'i utu.\\
AUX_RCP-wrapping COMP-meat-CIRC cook-INF in_order_to
How to cook Meat Wraps

tibe tumahan mei so e, fasa misais so, nesaras
tibe tumahan mei so e, fasa misai-s so, nesaras
prepare ingredient these CVY.NEUT as_follows meat deer-PART CVY.NEUT wheat
Prepare beforehand the following ingredients: deer meat, powdered

tibas sa ei, tibun usus so ei, ma'an
tibas sa ei, tibun usu-s so ei, ma'an
powder_form CVY.MASC and bowl water-PART CVY.NEUT and essence
wheat [i.e. flour], a bowl of water, essence

katabatis sa ei, kiaram sa ei, buarat
katabat-is sa ei, kiaram sa ei, buarat
black_olive\PART-PART CVY.MASC and salt CVY.MASC and onion
of olives, salt, onion,

si'ei, bihuun tiras so ei, purifiras si'ei, kitina
si='ei, bihuun tiras so ei, purifiras si'=ei, kitina
CVY.FEM=and pepper_powder white CVY.NEUT end garlic CVY.FEM=and sour_spice
white powdered pepper, bulb of garlic, powdered sour spice,

tibas si'ei, ma'an ba'atis keitis sa ei ai.
tibas si'=ei, ma'an ba'at-is keitis sa ei ai.\\
powder_form CVY.FEM=and essence fruit\PART-PART sour CVY.MASC and COMPL
and sour essence of fruit [e.g. lime juice or vinegar].

nijiabat simunis baripai'i utu e,
ni-jiabat simun-is baripai-'i utu e,
AUX_RCP-stuffing wrapping-PART prepare-INF in_order_to as_follows
To prepare the stuffing of the Wraps:

pirintai fasa so buarat si'ei purifiras si'ei puput.
pirintai fasa so buarat si='ei purifiras si='ei puput.
cut_in_pieces meat CVY.NEUT onion CVY.FEM=and garlic CVY.FEM=and COMPL
chop up the meat, the onion, and the garlic.

makara fasa so ma'an katabatis ibi buarat si'ei
makara fasa so ma'an katabat-is ibi buarat si'=ei
mix meat CVY.NEUT essence black_olive\PART-PART with onion CVY.FEM=and
Mix the meat with the essence of olives, and the onion,

bihuun tiras so ei purifiras si'ei kitina tibas
bihuun tiras so ei purifiras si'=ei kitina tibas
pepper_powder white CVY.NEUT and garlic CVY.FEM=and sour_spice powder_form
white powdered pepper, garlic, powdered sour spice,

si'ei ma'an ba'atis keitis sa ei tibun imi parapa.
si'=ei ma'an ba'at-is keitis sa ei tibun imi parapa.\\
CVY.FEM=and essence fruit\PART-PART sour CVY.MASC and bowl in COMPL
and sour essence of fruit, in a bowl.

nipurat simunis baripai'i utu e, makara nesaras
ni-purat simun-is baripai-'i utu e, makara nesaras
AUX_RCP-skin wrapping-PART prepare-INF in_order_ro as_follows mix wheat
To prepare the skin of the Wraps: mix the powdered

tibas sa usu si'ei ma'an katabatis sa
tibas sa usu si='ei ma'an katabat-is sa
powder_form MASC.CVY water CVY.FEM=and essence black_olive\PART-PART CVY.MASC
wheat, essence of olives,

ei kiaram sa ei parapa. puat hena hebu'u tueri nei
ei kiaram sa ei parapa. puat hena he-bu'u tueri nei
and salt CVY.MASC and COMPL knead then PL-ball small RCP.FEM
and salt. Knead these ingredients into small balls

tumahan mei so pika ara. pama hena bu'u misei
tumahan mei so pika ara. pama hena bu'u mi=sei
ingredient these CVY.MASC hand using flatten then ball these=CVY.FEM
with [your] hands. Then flatten these balls

purat jibet nei pini.
purat jibet nei pini.\\
skin circular RCP.FEM COMPL
into circular skins.

nisimun ifasan akatai'i utu e,
ni-simun i-fasa-n akatai-'i utu e,
AUX_RCP-wrapping COMP-meat-CIRC assemble-INF in_order_to as_follows
To assemble the Meat Wraps:

turei purat jibet nei jiabat so kupan ara,
turei purat jibet nei jiabat so kupan ara,
put_inside skin circular RCP.FEM stuffing CVY.NEUT scoop using
put the stuffing into the circular skins using a scoop;

sikitai hena jibet puratis no tsit. tibe hena
sikitai hena jibet purat-is no tsit. tibe hena
press_together then perimeter skin-PART RCP.NEUT COMPL arrange then
then press the circumference of the skins together.

hesimun so pente' ihabasan diabas nei jijit.
he-simun so pente' i-habas-an diabas nei jijit.
PL-wrapping CVY.NEUT stone_tray COMP-cook-CIRC greasy RCP.FEM COMPL
Arrange the Wraps on a cooking stone tray,

tantitai hena sarapi. usa isi ipente'
tantitai hena sarapi. usa isi i-pente'
bake_over_coals then COMPL be_ready therefore AUX_CVY-stone_tray
and then bake over coals. Be ready to remove the stone tray

arapi no isimun ikumat iti airan,
arap-i no i-simun i-kumat iti airan,
pick_up-INF RCP.NEUT AUX_CVY-wrapping REL_CVY-brown when COMPL
when the Wraps brown; for that is when the Wraps

simun ifasan so isi biamas kana.
simun i-fasa-n so isi biamas kana.\\
wrapping COMP-meat-CIRC CVY.NEUT because freshly_cooked now
are ready for eating.

kimei ei e, san tse ko tintan era fasa misais
kimei ei e, san tse ko tintan era fasa misai-s
notice also as_follows person 2SG.VOC ORG.NEUT exchange maybe meat deer-PART
Take note also: you may substitute the deer meat with

so fasa atse uenain so huinui. fasa
so fasa a-tse uenai-n so huinui. fasa
CVY.MASC meat AUX_ORG-2SG desire-REL_RCP CVY.NEUT COMPL meat
the meat you desire. Perhaps wolf meat,

keika'inas so era, fasa tikis so ibe, buneis
keika'ina-s so era, fasa tiki-s so ibe, buneis
feral_wolf-PART CVY.NEUT maybe meat rabbit-PART CVY.NEUT or giant_mushroom
or rabbit meat, or giant mushrooms.

sei ibe ai. kitina sei tintan era ei tsinka hibei
sei ibe ai. kitina sei tintan era ei tsinka hibei
CVY.FEM or COMPL sour_spice CVY.FEM exchange maybe also green_herb another
The sour spice also may be substituted with another

so huinui.
so huinui.
CVY.NEUT COMPL
green herb.

(I believe I don't need to do this, but I'm doing it anyway for the sake of people who like to read relay entries but don't have the time/energy to decipher the text directly.)

(Note: there is an error in the original text above: _usu_ is feminine and so should be marked with a feminine case clitic which would fuse with the conjunction _ei_. I've taken the liberty to correct this here. The original incorrectly uses the neuter clitic _so_ instead.)


Grammar

This information is highly condensed and re-arranged for the purpose of the relay; for more complete information, please consult the online Tatari Faran pages at: http://conlang.eusebeia.dyndns.org/fara/index.html

Orthography

Tatari Faran has 13 consonants and 6 basic vowels (plus 4 long vowels and 5 glides). The consonants are written as:

p t k ' b d m n f s h j ts r

Note that /d/ and /r/ are the same phoneme, realized as [d] when word-initial and [4] when word-medial. The orthography also uses this convention. Hence, when adding a prefix to a word with initial /d/, the /d/ will be written as /r/. E.g.: he + diru -> heriru.

/r/ is pronounced [4], and /j/ is pronounced [dz)], /ts/ as [ts)], and /'/ is the glottal stop [?]. Vowel-initial words have an implicit initial glottal stop, which shows up when prefixes are added to the word. For example:

he + asuen -> he'asuen

The presence or absence of a final glottal stop is significant. For example, _bata'_ is "chief" and _bata_ is "to walk".

The vowels are written as:

a e i ue o u

/e/ is pronounced [E], /ue/ is a *short* vowel pronounced [M], and [o] is pronounced [O]. The long vowels are:

aa ei ii uu

which are pronounced, respectively, [a:], [ej], [i:], and [u:]. The glides are:

ai au ia ua ui

which are pronounced, respectively, [aj], [ao], [ja], [wa], and [uj].

Syntax

Tatari Faran is generally head-initial. The head noun always appears first, followed by any modifiers. Adjectives follow the head noun, and adverbs follow the verb. Primary noun case is marked by case clitics, which always appear last in a noun phrase. Gender is marked on the case clitic. Demonstratives follow any adjectives but precede the case clitic. Relative clauses also appear between any adjectives and the case clitic.

Word order in a clause depends on verbal mood. The first NP in a clause is the syntactic subject, which is independent of noun case. The following word orders are attested (parts in [square brackets] are optional):

Indicative

NP (subject) - Verb - [argument NP's] - Complement
NP (subject) - Adjective - Complement
NP (subject) - NP (absolutive) - [Complement]

Imperative Verb - [NP (subject)] - [argument NP's] - [Complement]
Subjunctive Verb - NP (subject) - [argument NP's]
Interrogative NP (subject) - [argument NP's] - Verb

When a verb appears at the head of a sentence, that is a signal that it is either imperative or subjunctive. The syntactic subject in the imperative mood is usually the second person, and is often elided.

Note: the syntactic subject in Tatari Faran does NOT correlate with semantic role with respect to the verb. It serves only a purely syntactic function, in such processes as subject elision, etc.. Semantic role is indicated by the case system, described further on.

The complement is a word synonymous with the main verb or predicative adjective, and is used as a re-emphasis of the verb/adjective in the indicative case. It may sometimes give an additional nuance to the verb (see the COMPLEMENTS section below). It is usually left untranslated unless the target language has an equivalent feature. Note that although complements generally do have semantic referents, they play mainly a syntactic role, and so one ought to be cautious not to take the lexicon meaning of complements too literally.

Note that any of the NP slots above may be substituted with a postpositional clause. Postpositions in Tatari Faran play an analogous role to prepositions in English. The postposition follows the head noun and any modifiers. The case clitic is omitted. When the governed NP is inside a relative clause, it uses the auxilliary conveyant case. Some postpositions govern a subordinate clause, which is formed as an infinitive (described later).

The first NP slot is the syntactic subject. If a postpositional clause substitutes the first NP slot, the second NP slot becomes the syntactic subject instead. E.g., the indicative word order would become:

PP - Verb - NP (subject) - [argument NP's] - Complement.

The syntactic subject may be omitted from subsequent clauses if identical, by the use of a conjunction.

Morphology

Case Clitics

The core case clitics are:

  Masculine Feminine Neuter/Epicene
Originative ka kei ko
Conveyant sa sei so
Receptive na nei no

Case clitics always occur at the end of a noun phrase. The meaning of the core cases is described in its own section (below).

Case clitics may undergo mutations depending on the surrounding words. For the benefit of the translator, the various alternate forms are separately glossed in the glossary.

Plurals, Genitives, Compositives, and Partitives

Tatari Faran is mostly isolating, but there are a few important inflections to take note of, as described below.

1) Plural nouns are formed by prefixing the noun with he-. E.g.:

san -> hesan

Note, however, that this plural form is *emphatic* and *optional*. It is only used to emphasize the plurality of the referent. Normally, the singular noun form is used to refer to singular and plural referents alike.

2) Genitives are formed by suffixing -n (vowel final) or -an (consonant final) to a noun. For example:

diru -> dirun
san -> sanan

If the noun ends with -nan, however, that is substituted with -naran instead. For example:

jiranan -> jiranaran (NOT jirananan)

Genitives are used for possession ("the house of the woman") or origin ("man of Fara", "child of the mother").

3) Compositives are formed just like genitives, except that an additional prefix i- is added. For example:

san -> isanan
jiranan -> ijiranaran

Compositives are used for making compound words. For example, the genitive _diru dukunan_ means "girl of the servant", whereas the compositive _diru idukunan_ means "servant girl".

4) Partitives are formed by suffixing -s (vowel final) or -is (consonant final). For example:

bunari -> bunaris
jibin -> jibinis

If the noun ends with -s, however, that is substituted with -tis instead. For example:

panis -> panitis (NOT panisis)

Partitives are used for indicating subsets ("three of the men") and component parts ("hand of the woman", "top of the volcano").

Case System

Tatari Faran typology is unlike the Standard Average European accusative or ergative typology. It is structured around the three core cases: originative, conveyant, and receptive, which are chosen *semantically* rather than syntactically. This is very important to understand, as otherwise you will not be able to make much sense out of Tatari Faran.

The originative case is used for indicating source, agent, or actor.

The receptive case is used for indicating destination, recipient, patient, or beneficiary.

The conveyant case is used for indicating object of motion, patient, or that which is moved or conveyed by the verb.

These cases are chosen *independently* of whether the NP is serving as the syntactic subject of the sentence.

1) With verbs of motion, the originative case indicates the origin of motion, the conveyant case indicates that which is in motion, and the receptive case indicates the direction or destination of motion. For example:

huu sa tapa itsan no bata.
1sp CVY walk cinder_cone RCP COMPL
I walk to the cinder cone.

If we change the case of the NP's, we get a different meaning:

huu sa tapa itsan ko bata.
1sp CVY walk cinder_cone ORG COMPL
I walk from the cinder cone.

We can move "cinder cone" to the front, which in Tatari Faran word order makes it the syntactic subject:

itsan ko tapa huu sa bata.
cinder_cone ORG walk 1sp CVY COMPL
From the cinder cone I walk.

Note that the semantic, factual content of the sentence has not changed. Only the emphasis has changed.

2) Verbs of sensation (see, smell, hear, etc.) are divided into two categories, "out-reaching" verbs and "in-sensing" verbs. E.g.:

simani ko huena jibin no hiim.
wolf ORG smell child RCP COMPL
The wolf sniffs at the child.

simani ko fahun jibin no uen.
wolf ORG smell child RCP COMPL
The child smells the wolf.

The only difference between the two sentences is the verb (and its complement), yet in the English translation, there is a switch of subject and object. Why?

The verb _huena_ means "to sniff at" - the active act of sniffing at something or someone; whereas the verb _fahun_ means "to smell" - the involitive happenstance of an odor reaching one's nose. With verb _huena_, one is "reaching out" one's olfactory attention toward something; hence the originative case is used for the sniffer, and the receptive case is used for that which is sniffed at. With the verb _fahun_, however, one is *receiving* olfactory information from something: hence the *receptive* case is used for the smeller, and the *originative* case is used for that which is smelled.

This distinction, which is mostly absent in English (the same verb "smell" is used in both senses), is very important in Tatari Faran. Take for example, the following pair of sentences:

huu ka juerat tara' nei itu.
1sp ORG look 3sp RCP:FEM COMPL

huu ka hamra tara' nei aram.
1sp ORG see 3sp RCP:FEM COMPL

Again, the only difference between the two is the verb. However, if translated to English, the first reads "I look at her", whereas the second reads "she sees me". The latter may seem counter-intuitive to an English speaker; but keep in mind that with the verb _juerat_, one is *directing* one's visual attention at something, and hence the looker is originative, and the thing looked at is receptive. However, with the verb _hamra_, one is *receiving* sight of something, hence the seer is *receptive*, and that which is seen is *originative*, being the origin of that sight.

The same analysis applies to the verbs _kuni iti'_, "to listen", and _dutan inin_, "to hear". With _kuni_, the listener is originative and the thing listened for is receptive; whereas with _dutan_, the hearer is receptive and the thing heard is originative.

With all sensory verbs, the conveyant case is used for the actual sensation being perceived: the sight seen (color, shape, etc.), the sound heard (as opposed to that which makes the sound), the odor (the stinkiness of the wolf), etc..

3) With verbs of giving, the originative is used for the giver, the receptive for the recipient, and the conveyant for the gift. For example:

diru kei kira firasa sei asuen na esan.
girl ORG give flower CVY younger_brother RCP COMPL
The girl gives flowers to [her] younger brother.

4) With (most) intransitive verbs, the subject is conveyant. For example:

tara' sa duum imim.
3sp CVY sleep COMPL
He is sleeping.

5) With verbs that involve change of state, that which is changed is usually in the conveyant, and the result of the change in the receptive. For example:

huu ka akatai he-bo' so buta' nei ite'.
1sp ORG build PL-log CVY hut RCP COMPL
I build the logs into a hut.

Complements

In Tatari Faran, every verb and every adjective has a corresponding *complement*, which is a synonymous word used to re-emphasize and/or complement the predicate in the indicative mood. For example:

diru sei jui'in kakat.
girl CVY beautiful COMPL
The girl is beautiful.

The complement _kakat_ means "gaudy" or "colorful". It is used here to complement the adjectival predicate _jui'in_ "beautiful", as a manner of emphasizing the girl's stunning beauty. With another adjective, a different complement is used:

sura sei pirat inai.
dress CVY yellow COMPL
The dress is yellow.

The complement _inai_ means "yellowing", or "brightly colored". It is used here as an emphasis of the yellow color of the dress.

Verbs in the indicative mood are complemented in the same way. For example:

huu sa tapa itsan no bata.
1sp CVY walk cinder_cone RCP COMPL
I walk to the cinder cone.

The complement _bata_ is synonymous with _tapa_, "to walk". It is used as a re-emphasis of the verb.

Sometimes, a verb can have more than one possible complement. In such cases, the use of different complements may add an additional nuance to the verb. For example:

kiran sa pamra asu.
young_man CVY run COMPL
The young man runs.

The complement _asu_ implies smoothness or fluency; hence, the running of the young man here is likened to that of an athlete. On the other hand, consider the following example:

jibin sa pamra itan.
child CVY run COMPL
The child runs.

The complement _itan_ implies stumbling, franticness, or suddenness. Hence, the running of the child is likened to one of repeatedly stumbling and getting up.

It is customary to leave the complement untranslated if the target language has no direct analog of it. One should also be aware in translating Tatari Faran that sometimes complements are used simply because it is customary to use it for that particular verb or adjective; the lexical meaning of the complement may or may not be intended literally.

Conjunctions

Multi-clause constructions in Tatari Faran are built by means of conjunctions.

hena

The most commonly encountered conjunction is _hena_, "and". Note that _hena_ is used ONLY to join clauses, NOT NP's. In a 2-clause construction, _hena_ appears as the second element of the clause in the second clause. In the indicative mood, this is immediately after the first NP. For example:

huu ka kapa buneis sei pa', tiki kei hena huena fei na hiim.
1sp ORG drop giant_mushroom CVY COMPL rabbit ORG and sniff 3sp RCP COMPL
I dropped the giant mushroom, and the rabbit sniffed at it.

In the imperative mood, this is after the verb (sometimes also after any adverbs or verbal modifiers).

isi

Cause-and-effect constructions use the conjunction _isi_, "because". Note that _isi_ appears in BOTH clauses; the cause clause is distinguished by dropping its complement, and the result clause is distinguished by having one. For example:

huu sa isi pamra itan, keika'ina ko isi hamra huu na.
1sp CVY so flee COMPL wolf ORG because see 1sp RCP
I ran away, because I saw a wolf.

huu sa isi pamra, keika'ina ko isi hamra huu na aram.
1sp CVY because flee wolf ORG so see 1sp RCP COMPL
Because I ran away, I saw a wolf.

Relative Clauses

Relative clauses appear between the head noun and its corresponding case clitic, following any adjectives, genitives, etc.. The relative clause begins with any argument NP's and is terminated by a relativised verb. The argument NP's are inflected in a special way, called Auxilliary Case Inflection, which uses prefixes to mark core case instead of case clitics.

Verb Relativisation

The relative verb is inflected to indicate the function of the head noun in the relative clause:

Originative a- (consonant-final), or -kan (vowel-final).
Conveyant

i- (consonant-initial), or -s (vowel-initial, vowel-final),
or -as (vowel-initial, consonant-final).

Receptive -an (consonant-final), or -n (vowel-final).
Examples
    org cvy rcp
tapa -> tapakan, itapa, tapan
orafa -> orafakan, orafas, orafan
aipam -> a'aipam, aipamas, aipaman

Auxilliary Case Inflection

These inflections mark noun case inside a relative clause:

Originative a-
Conveyant i-
Receptive ni-

E.g.: diru -> ariru (org), iriru (cvy), niriru (rcp).

Examples

Isolated relative clause examples:

diru ahuu itapa sei the girl who walked away from me
diru nihuu itapa sei the girl who walked to me
diru ihuu tapakan sei the girl from whom I walked away
diru ihuu tapan sei the girl to whom I walked

Example sentences containing relative clauses:

huu na hamra kiran nibata' tsanakan ka aram.
1sp RCP see young_man chief-AUX_RCP speak-REL_ORG ORG COMPL
I see the young man who spoke to the chief.

Embedded Postpositional Clauses

Postpositional clauses may also be embedded in an NP in the same place a relative clause may appear (i.e. between the head noun and its case clitic, following any adjectives). The noun governed by the postposition is inflected for auxilliary conveyant case, and the postposition receives accent. E.g.:

samat na hamra tsaritas ikuen ata ka aram.
man RCP see monkey tree-AUX_CVY atop ORG COMPL
The man sees the monkey (which is) on top of the tree.

Infinitive Clauses

Infinitive clauses are formed in a similar way to relative clauses. The argument NP's in the infinite clause are inflected using Auxilliary Case Inflection to indicate that the nouns are in a subordinate clause; and the infinitive clause is ended by the verb, nominalized by the infinitive suffix -i (consonant-final verb) or -'i (vowel-final verb). A neuter case clitic is follows the infinitive verb, and the clause is then treated like a neuter NP.

For example:

huu na hamra iriru ni'itsan tapa'i ko aram.
1sp RCP see AUX_CVY-girl AUX_RCP-cinder_cone walk-INFIN ORG COMPL
I see the girl walk to the cinder cone.

The infinitive clause is _iriru ni'itsan tapa'i ko_.

Infinitive clauses can also be governed by a postposition, in which case the case clitic is omitted:

huu sa tapa buara na nihuu atsaritas hamra'i utu bata.
1sp CVY walk volcano RCP AUX_RCP-1sp AUX_ORG-monkey see-INFIN to COMPL
I walk to the volcano in order that I see the monkey.
I walk to the volcano to see the monkey.

The postposition _utu_ means "for the purpose of", and governs the infinitive clause _nihuu atsaritas hamra'i_.


Vocabulary

a- auxilliary org. case prefix.
ai (1) interj. yes, indeed; (2) compl. it is so, indeed. (Note: _ai_ is often used as a generic complement in predicates lacking a verb or a predicating adjective.)
airan compl. with freshness, with vitality, dynamic.
akatai v. to assemble, to build, to join, to attach component parts to each other.
ara post. with (a wielded weapon or instrument), using.
arap v. to pick up, to take (something). Taker in rcp., thing taken in cvy., place or person taken from in org..
ba'as fem. n. edible fruit.
baripai v. to cook, to prepare food. See: sarapi.
bihuun neut. n. (1) powdered pepper; (2) any strongly aromatic powder, esp. with pepper-like spicy and sneeze-inducing properties.
biamas adj. freshly cooked, delicious, tasty. Refers to hot, freshly cooked food. Compare _sarap_.
bu'u fem. n. ball, round lump.
buarat fem. n. onion, esp. the bulb part of the plant.
buneis fem. n. giant mushroom. Refers to an edible species of giant agaric with a brown cap that grows up to several feet in diameter and a thick, short stem, usually found in forests at high altitudes.
diabas adj. greasy, sticky.
e ptcl. (1) Marks the start of quoted discourse. (2) Introduces an elaboration; "that is", "that is to say", "as follows".
ei (1) post. nominal conj., "and", "also". Follows case clitic of modified NP. (2) adv. "also". Note that it can only occur in adverbial position in this usage, not as a conjunction.
era adv. "if", "maybe". Follows verb. If follows subjunctive verb, means "if"; if follows indicative verb, means "maybe".
fasa neut. n. (1) meat, flesh. (2) carcass, esp. of a freshly hunted animal.
habas v. (1) _habas saa_ - to set on fire, to ignite (volitive). (2) _habas sarapi_ - to cook over fire.
he- plur. prefix. Usually only used emphatically.
hena conj. "and then".
hibei dem. n., another, the other.
huinui compl. to be confused, to be rearranged, to be mixed up, to be jumbled.
i- (1) auxilliary cvy. case prefix for nouns. (2) cvy. relativisation prefix for verbs/adjectives.
i-...-an compositive case circumfix for consonant-final nouns.
i-...-n compositive case circumfix for vowel-final nouns.
-i infinitive suffix for consonant-final verbs.
-'i infinitive suffix for vowel-final verbs.
ibe nominal disj., (exclusive) "or", "if not, then this". Follows case clitic of NP.
ibi post. together with, accompanied by. Refers to accompaniment with the topic NP.
imi post. in, inside of, within (an object or person).
-is partitive case suffix for consonant-final nouns.
isi conj. "because". Occurs in both the cause clause and the result clause. The verb complement is omitted from the cause clause but present in the result clause as a manner of emphasis. When the topic NP is present, _isi_ occurs immediately following; when the topic NP has been elided, _isi_ begins the clause and takes the case particle as a modifier.
isu compl. wrenchingly, to have a wrenching sensation.
iti temp. post. when, during, at (a particular time).
jiabat neut. n. paste, esp. of food made into paste; stuffing.
jibet neut. (1) n. perimeter, circumference; (2) adj. circular.
jijit compl. to lay out in proper order, to line up one by one.
kana (1) temp. adv. now, at this time, immediately. (2) temp. post. case marker, this time. Used only with temporal nouns, e.g.: _baran kana_ - in this morning; _mubun kana_ - in this night; tonight.
katabas fem. n. black olive.
keika'ina masc. n., fierce, feral wolf.
keitis adj. sour.
kiaram masc. n. salt.
kiki compl. excited, agitated.
kimei v. to perceive, to understand, to notice. The perceiver is in the rcp..
kitina fem. n. sour spice, esp. green herb or edible leaf that is sour-tasting.
ko neut. org. clitic.
kumat adj. orange, tan, golden brown.
kupan masc. n. scoop, ladle, spoon.
ma'an masc. n. (1) fat, oil, thick juice; (2) essence, liquid extract, esp. viscous liquid yielded through crushing.
makara v. (1) to blend, to mix together; (2) to throw (things) into a disorganized heap.
mei dem. n., this, these.
miin compl. satiated, filled.
misai fem. n. deer.
misei Contraction of _mei_ and _sei_.
nesaras masc. n. wheat, barley; any edible grain.
-n (1) genitive case suffix for vowel-final nouns. (2) rcp. relativisation suffix for verbs.
nei fem. rcp. case clitic.
ni- auxilliary rcp. case prefix.
no neut. rcp. case clitic.
pama v. (1) _pama pini_ - to press down, to flatten; (2) _pama ukan_ - to push downwards.
parapa compl. to be in a messy state, to be in a heap, to be in collapse and ruin.
pente' fem. n. stone tray.
pika neut. n. hand, or the palm of the hand.
pini compl. to be flattened.
pirintai v. to cut into small pieces (esp. with a sharp instrument), to chop into bits.
puat v. (1) _puat isu_ - to squeeze (with the hands), to wring; (2) _puat ubu_ - to knead, to mold, to shape with the hands.
puput compl. to be in chunks, to be in pieces.
purat fem. n. skin, esp. animal skin used to make clothing.
purifiras fem. n. bulb of garlic; lit. flower-root, so named because the arrangement of its cloves resembles the arrangement of flower petals.
-s partitive case suffix for vowel-final nouns.
sa masc. cvy. case clitic.
saa compl. to catch fire.
san (1) n. person, human. (2) post. Mr., Ms., Mrs. Used as an emphatically formal modifier for proper nouns.
san tse (1) Common generic greeting. (2) Formal, polite term of address.
sarap adj. (1) _sarap kiki_ - delicious, has an exciting taste. (2) _sarap miin_ - delicious and satiating.
sarapi compl. to be cooked deliciously.
sei fem. cvy. case clitic.
si'ei Contraction of _sei_ and _ei_.
sikitai v. to pinch, to press together.
simun neut. n. wrapping, something wrapped.
so neut. cvy. case clitic.
tantitai v. to bake over coals.
tibas adj. of a fine, powdered form.
tibe v. to prepare in advance, to lay out in order, to arrange. See: jijit.
tibun neut. n. (1) bowl; (2) derog. half of the hard shell of a fruit, worn as a primitive kind of helmet.
tiki fem. n. rabbit, hare.
tintan v. to swap, to exchange, to rearrange, to permute. The objects being swapped are in the cvy.
tiras adj. white.
-tis partitive case suffix for s-final nouns (replaces the noun's final s).
tse [tsE] (1) sg. 2nd person pronoun, "you". (2) Interjection: "Sir!", "Ma'am!", "you there!". (3) Vocative particle, inserted between last adjective and case clitic.
tsinka neut. n. (1) green onion; (2) any edible green herb.
tsit compl. to be pinched, to stick together, to fasten.
tueri adj. small, tiny.
tumahan masc. n. (1) riches, resources; (2) ingredients, components.
turei v. (1) to enter into, to insert, to put inside, to cause to be inside. (2) to instill, to inspire.
ubu compl. to be rounded, to be molded into a lump.
uenai v. to desire, to want, to like (something).
ukan compl. weighing down, substantial.
usa v. (1) to live, to be awake, to be active. Active person in org.; (2) (with rcp. NP) to be attentive to something, to be ready to do something.
usu fem. n. water.
utu post. + infin. for the purpose of, in order to.

Abbreviations

adj. adjective
compl. complement
conj. conjunction
cvy. conveyant
derog. derogatory
disj. disjunction
fem. feminine
infin. infinitive
masc. masculine
n. noun
neut. neuter/epicene
NP noun phrase
org. originative
plur. plural
ptcl. particle
post. postposition
rcp. receptive
sg. singular
temp. temporal
v. verb
2 second person
AUX_CVY auxilliary conveyant case
AUX_ORG auxilliary originative case
AUX_RCP auxilliary receptive case
COMP compositive
COMPL complement
CIRC circumfix
CVY conveyant
FEM feminine
INF infinitive
MASC masculine
NEUT neuter/epicene
ORG originative
PART partitive
PL plural
RCP receptive
REL_CVY conveyant relativisation affix
REL_RCP receptive relativisation affix
SG singular
VOC vocative


Conculture

Some concultural notes that may be of interest:

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Index

June 14th, 2005
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zpentrabvagiktu@theiling.de
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