Ring E: 8/22: Xara

Jim Taylor
[ Relay 11 | Ring E | Ring N/X | Conlangs | Participants ]
[ Xara | Smooth English | Grammar | Vocabulary ]

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xolatem gaminodeyilmeyar jaran

evanedmeyer sean na bavoles:

  • jar derivar
  • gisam
  • kar
  • dulom lopinajmeyar
  • tek karadar
  • xolid
  • vagef falan
  • xaromit
  • parexel
  • seren solumar

goru merayeder jiyeled:

  • jarer xu xolider xu xaromiter ja kejuhudes.
  • merayeder ja jiyeledes xo jar xu dulom lopinajmeyar xu xolid xu vagef falan xu xaromit xu parexel xu seren solumar.
  • evanedmeyer sean ja solimes do duruj.

goru gaminoder jiyeled:

  • gaminoder ja jiyeledes xo gisam xu kar xu dulom lopinajmeyar xu tek karadar, evanedmeyer sean si a solimes xoyol.
  • herulijmeyer dunan ja jiyeledes gaminodur, feyotmeyer esan si a umiles.
  • samudmeyer foran xu rahuyan ja jiyeledes herulijmeyur, funormeyer esan si a umiles.

goru gaminodeyilmeyer tigov:

  • merayeder ja keveres rofo herulijme gaminodar, bokoliver si a umiles.
  • fuleyudmeyer ja mevedes xoyol.
  • asmeyer ja keveres rofo feguliv garevalan jiduloman.
  • asmeyer ja keveres rodo oxiyelid xu asmeyer ja gareval.
  • xeon gaminodeyilme si a orasme golan, seon asmeyer xi ja pimives.

zu tuliv:

  • jarer derivar da oxodes xo rolaj esan aran jarar, jehulol garelar u zonovar u garatejar.
  • parexeler da oxodes xo rolaj esan aran femezmeyar.

Smooth Translation

A Recipe For Meat Pasties

You will need these ingredients:

  • beef
  • flour
  • water
  • olive oil
  • sea salt
  • onion
  • white pepper
  • garlic
  • cumin
  • lemon juice

To make the filling:

  • Chop the meat, onion and garlic.
  • Make a filling with the meat, olive oil, onion, white pepper, garlic, cumin and lemon juice.
  • Mix all these ingredients in a bowl.

To make the pastry:

  • Make a pastry with flour, water, olive oil and sea salt by mixing these ingredients together.
  • Make small balls from the pastry using your hands.
  • Make big flat circles from the balls using the palms of your hands.

To assemble the pasties:

  • Place the filling on the circles of pastry using a spoon.
  • Pinch the edges together.
  • Place them on an oiled baking tray.
  • Put them in the oven and bake them.
  • When the pasties are brown, eat them.


  • You could replace the beef with your own choice of meat, such as snail, rabbit or mushrooms.
  • You could replace the cumin with your own choice of spices.


Xara is an inflectional language, which makes much use of sets of regular suffuxes.


There are no definite or indefinite articles.

Prepositions govern the nominative case.

All nouns are declined using the following suffixes:

(no suffix) nominative singular
-er accusative singular
-ar genitive singular
-ir dative singular
-ur ablative singular
-me nominative plural
-meyer accusative plural
-meyar genitive plural
-meyir dative plural
-meyur ablative plural


The suffix –an typically indicates an adjective and may be added to nouns or verbs to form adjectives.

Adjectives are invariable and do not decline for number or case.


The suffix –ol typically indicates an adverb.


These are declined with the same suffixes that are used for nouns.

The suffix –an may be added to a personal pronoun to create a possesive pronoun.


Verbs are conjugated by adding a personal eddings to the verb stem. In the above text the 2nd person singular ending ‘–es’ and the 3rd person plural ending ‘-asme’ are used.

The conjugated verb is preceeded by a tense indicator, such as ‘a’ (present tense) and ‘da’ (conditional, or indicating possibility).

The tense indicator is often preceed by a mood indicator, such as ‘xi’ (affirmative and emphatic mood indicator) or ‘si’ (relative clause and continuous mood indicator).

The mood indicator ‘si’ is always used with verbs in relative clauses and in making an extra clause to represent the English use of a continuous participle (the ‘–ing’ verb ending).

The verb stem on its own translates as the infinitive.

Word Order

The usual word order in Xara is as follows: object – verb – subject – adverb/ adverbial phrase/ relative clause

Because of the inflectional nature of the language word order can be fairly flexible.

Idiomatic Constructions

Xara contains many idiomatic phrases. The following construction is an example from the above passage:

‘xeon (with the mood indicator ‘si’) …. seon (with the mood indicator ‘xi’).’

This indicates: ‘if or when (such and such happens), then (such and such happens).’


a present tense indicator
aran own, respective
as 3rd person pronoun
bavol need
bokoliv spoon
da possibility and conditional tense indicator
deriv cow, bull
do in
dulom oil
dunan small
duruj bowl
es 2nd person pronoun
evaned ingredient
falan white
feguliv tray
femez spice, seasoning
feyot hand
foran big
fuleyud edge
funor palm (of hand)
gaminod pastry, dough
gaminodeyil pasty, empanada
garatej mushroom
garel snail
gareval bake
gisam flour
golan brown
goru to, in order to
herulij sphere, ball
ja imperative mood indicator
jar meat
jaran meaty, meat
jehulol for example
jiduloman greasy, oiled
jiyeled make
kar water
karad sea
kejuhud cut up, chop
kever put, place
lopinaj olive
merayed filling, stuffing
meved squash, pinch
na future tense indicator
or be
oxiyelid oven, kiln
oxod replace, substitute
parexel cumin
pimiv eat
rahuyan flat
rodo into
rofo on to
rolaj choice
samud circle
sean this, these
seon then
seren juice
si relative clause and continuous mood indicator
solim mix, combine
solum lemon
tek salt
tigov assemble, put together
tuliv note, annotation
u or
umil use
vagef pepper
xaromit garlic
xeon when
xi affirmative and emphatic mood indicator
xo with
xolatem recipe
xolid onion
xoyol together
xu and
zonov rabbit
zu behold, here is

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June 14th, 2005
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