Þrjótrunn: A North Romance Language


1st/2nd Declension

This is similar to first/second noun declension, but some forms are different. The different forms are marked with *.


Although in Latin, noun and adjective declensions were the same with a few exceptions, Þrjótrunn adjective declension has taken some endings from the pronomial declension. In Latin, some adjectives, e.g. tōtvs already show traces of this.

Monosyllabic Stems

f. m. n.
nom. sg. [a]- [u]-(u)r [u]-(u)þ [p]
acc. [a]- [u]- [u]-(u)þ [p]
dat. -i [a]-a [a]-a
gen. [i]-(u)r/ir [p] [i]-(u)r/ir [p] [i]-(u)r/ir [p]
nom. pl. -i [i]-i [a]-(a)
acc. [a]-ar [a]-ar [a]-(a)
dat. [i]-ir [i]-ir [i]-ir
gen. [u]-ru [u]-ur [u]-ur
'beautiful' f. m. n.
stem bell-
nom. sg. bjall bjöll bll
acc. bjall bll bll
dat. billi bjalla bjalla
gen. billir billir billir
nom. pl. belli billi bjall
acc. bjallar bjallar bjall
dat. billir billir billir
gen. bllu bllur bllur

Disyllabic Stems

f. m. n.
nom. sg. [+]- [u]-(u)r [u]-(u)þ [p]
acc. [+]- [u]-(u) [u]-(u)þ [p]
dat. -i -a -a
gen. [i]-ir [p] [i]-ir [p] [i]-ir [p]
nom. pl. -i [i]-i -(a)
acc. -ar -ar -(a)
dat. [i]-ir [i]-ir [i]-ir
gen. [u]-*u* [u]-ur [u]-ur
'latin' f. m. n.
stem latin-
nom. sg. latin latinn latinn
acc. latin latin latinn
dat. letni latna latna
gen. letnir letnir letnir
nom. pl. latni letni latna
acc. latnar latnar latna
dat. letnir letnir letnir
gen. letnu letnur letnur
'terrestrial' f. m. n.
stem tjarr-an-
nom. sg. tjarran tjarrunn tjarrunn
acc. tjarran tjarrunu tjarrunn
dat. tjarrani tjarrana tjarrana
gen. tjarrenir tjarrenir tjarrenir
nom. pl. tjarrani tjarreni tjarran
acc. tjarranar tjarranar tjarran
dat. tjarrenir tjarrenir tjarrenir
gen. tjarrunu tjarrunur tjarrunur

In derivational endings like -an-, vowels are not eliminated. They are independently subject to umlaut phenomena.

Adjectives derived by -an- added to a noun consistently use the possibly a-broken stem of the noun. They show one irregularity in the acc.sg., where an -u ending occurs.

3rd Declension

In this declension, masculine and feminine forms are identical. This declension is quite like the 3rd noun declension, but a few forms are different, which are marked with *.

Monosyllabic Stems

f./m. n.
nom. sg. - -(u)þ [p]
acc. - -(u)þ [p]
dat. [i]-i [i]-i
gen. [i]-(u)r [i]-(u)r
nom. pl. -ir -(i)
acc. -ir -(i)
dat. [i]-ifur [i]-ifur
gen. [u]- [u]-

Disyllabic Stems

f./m. n.
nom. sg. - -(u)þ [p]
acc. - -(u)þ [p]
dat. [i]-i [i]-i
gen. [i]-(u)r [i]-(u)r
nom. pl. -ir -(i)
acc. -ir -(i)
dat. [i]-ifur [i]-ifur
gen. - -


Most adjectives are inflected for comparative and superlative. Some adjectives use an analytical form.

Synthetic Forms

The regular comparative and superlative are formed by suffixes '-ur' and '-sim'. For monosyllabic stems, the i-umlaut form (dat.pl. stem) is used for both endings. For disyllabics, the uncontracted stem is used for both endings.

The comparative '-ur' is 3rd declension. The -u- does not drop when endings are added. In dat.pl. the ending is -ufur.

The superlative '-i(si)m' is regular 1st declension. The ending for f.gen.pl. is '-ismur'.


Pos. f. Compar. f./m. Compar. n. Superl. f. Superl. m. Superl. n.
nom. sg. bjall billur billur billsim billsimur billsimuð
acc. bjall billur billur billsim billsim billsimuð
dat. billi billuri billuri billsimi billsimi billsimi
gen. billur billurr billurr billsimir billsimir billsimir
nom. pl. belli billurir billuri billsimir billsimi billsim
acc. bjallar billurir billuri billsimar billsimar billsim
dat. billir billufur billufur billsimir billsimir billsimir
gen. bjöllu billur billur billsimur billsimur billsimur

Analytical Form

The analytical way of forming the comparative is to use the adverb 'plýr' for the comparative and 'plýrim' (adverb of adj. 'plýrmur') for the superlative. Present participles and some adjectives use this method. The case and number inflections are normally applied to the adjective.



The cardinals one, two and three and composite numbers ending in one, two and three are declined by gender and case. All other numbers are indeclinable.

The basic numbers are as follows:

1 ún, únn, úð
2 dve, ,
3 trér, trér, trjá
4 kvöttur
5 kýkk
6 sex
7 sept
8 ótt
10 dég
11 ýndig
12 dúðig
13 tréðig
14 kvöttig
15 kýndig
16 séðig
20 ýgið
30 trígið
40 kvaðgið
50 kýggið
60 sjasgið
70 sjöpgið
80 oggið
90 nógið
100 kjött
1000 mill

The numbers 17-19 are formed analytically:

17 dég sept
18 dég ótt
19 dég

Numbers 21-29, 31-39, etc. are also formed analytically:

21 ýgið ún/únn/úð
22 ýgið dve/
23 ýgið trér/trjá
24 ýgið kvöttur
29 ýgið
31 trígið únn
99 nógið

Hundreds and thousands are counted to form 200,300,... and 2000,3000,... The neuter forms of 2 and 3 are used. The numbers are indeclinable.

200 kjött
300 trjá kjött
400 kvöttur kjött
2000 mill
3000 trjá mill
4000 kvöttur mill

Other numbers are composed as in the following examples (note that 'and' is only used before ones).

208 kjött ótt
845 ótt kjött kvaðgið kýkk
987654 kjött oggið sept mill sex kjött kýggið kvöttur


Some simplification took place compared to Latin: the fused hundreds (dvcentī, etc.) were lost and replaced by analytical constructions. By this, the hundreds also became indeclinable. Also, mill is not inflected anymore. Finally, no genitive is used with thousands.

October 28th, 2007
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